Attitude à l'égard de la (non)conformité : impact des stéréotypes sur l'évaluation de candidats à l'embauche

Abstract : In recent years, gender stereotypes have been the subject of controversial discussions in French society. The debates have polarized into two camps: one driven by the importance they attach to gender differences; the other by the need to erase them and promote gender equality at work. Several (american) models explain the effects of stereotypes on judgment. These effects can either be stereotypical (i.e., when the person behaves in concordance with his stereotypes or counter-stereotypical (i.e., when he behaves differently to his stereotypes). To this day, very few studies have been carried out in France to test these models. Hence, the purpose of this doctoral dissertation was twofold. First, we examined gender and status stereotypes which could lead to sex inequality at work. Second, we tested the impact stereotypic conformity and stereotypic non-conformity had on the recruitment of applicants and on the evaluation of actual workers. We carried out 11 studies among students from different backgrounds and workers. Four studies were focused on characterizing the French gender and hierarchical stereotypes, one study allowed us to determine if French people feel pressure to comply with gender stereotypes and 6 studies were aimed to test the impact of stereotypic and counter stereotypic information on the evaluation of applicants and workers. We recruited 3528 (2136 women) with a mean age of 25 years. Results showed the major impact descriptive gender stereotypes have on the evaluation of people. When applying for a job, behaving stereotypically would benefit the applicants if their gender and status fit with the job. In the other case, it would disadvantage them. However, this impact fades when information about the applicants is available, in particular when the applicants are gender counter stereotypic. The judgment will then be based on the conformity between the applicants’ personality and the job. Depending of the personal motivations of the evaluator, he can decide to either penalize or aid the counter stereotypical candidate. Finally, it is likely that stereotypes associated to jobs are those that have the more impact on the recruitment officer’s judgment. Our discussion will focus on the importance French political authorities devote to gender stereotypes whereas changing representations of occupations would be a more promising solution to reduce gender inequality.
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Charlène Soubrier. Attitude à l'égard de la (non)conformité : impact des stéréotypes sur l'évaluation de candidats à l'embauche. Psychologie. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU20056⟩. ⟨tel-02162261⟩

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