Contribution aux architectures protocolaires pour un système de localisation dans un réseau de capteurs sans fil basé sur une couche physique 802.15.4a UWB

Abstract : In recent years, Wireless Sensor Networks has gained an important interest in all fields of activity. One of the expected information is the sensor nodes localization; However, due to the sensors constraints in terms of memory and energy, it is not possible to equip the sensor with specific equipment dedicated to the localization as the GPS receiver. Thus, locating the sensor by using the communication signal is an interesting option. In contrast to Range-Free techniques which use assumptions of network connectivity, the Range-Based techniques are known to reach good localization accuracy and, in our case, they are based on the measurement of the time of flight of the radio signal UWB. Our contributions focus on the choice of an efficient physical layer, on the implementation of tools that promote a good temporal accuracy in radio exchanges, and the development of an original distance evaluation protocol. Research works presented in this manuscript aim to address the global general problem of indoor localization in wireless sensor networks, and particularly the ranging functionality which is the distance evaluation mechanism between nodes. At first we implemented and evaluated the well-known protocols encountered in the literature. Then, we identify and correct errors that may bias the Time of flight metric. We propose the 2M-TWR protocol (2 Messages - Two Way Ranging) as an improvement to the TWR reference protocol. Finally, we propose and implement the BB-TWR (Beacon Based-TWR) protocol, which is able to perform ranging, sequentially and non-sequentially, by including the necessary time information in any existing broadcast native traffic. The proofs of concept were prototyped and evaluated on a real testbed.
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Nezo Ibrahim Fofana. Contribution aux architectures protocolaires pour un système de localisation dans un réseau de capteurs sans fil basé sur une couche physique 802.15.4a UWB. Réseaux et télécommunications [cs.NI]. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU20049⟩. ⟨tel-02161999⟩

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