Suivi in vivo de cellules immunitaires par imagerie multimodale

Abstract : Recent clinical trial results have demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy in cancer patients. This type of therapy involves treating cancer cells by stimulating the patient's immune defenses. The aim of this thesis project is to develop a biomarker of efficacy for this therapy, in order to better understand the biological mechanisms involved, and to have an early and non-invasive indicator of the patient’s response to immunotherapy. To do this, two imaging techniques (MRI and PET) were used as in vivo monitoring tools for the biodistribution of different populations of immune cells. The first step of this work was to establish different protocols for labeling immune cells. For the PET approach, the immune cells were labeled with Zirconium 89; and for MRI, two labeling techniques were studied: the first uses iron nanoparticles, and the other uses micelles loaded with Fluorine 19. After validation of their non-toxicity, the sensitivity of each labeling was evaluated in vitro, then in vivo in a second step, thus making it possible to study the biodistribution of the immune cells after different types of injections. The labeling with Zirconium 89 was then tested on different animal models of immunotherapies (PD1/PDL1 for example). Finally, since direct markings do not allow optimal cellular monitoring in the long term, a cell labeling approach using reporter genes has been considered. It involved modifying the genome of the immune cells so that they could express an enzyme (for example the viral thymidine kinase HSV1-TK) or a transporter (such as the NIS iodine transporter) allowing the internalization of a radioactive tracer in vivo, and thus be able to carry out indirect labeling of the cells.
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Solenne Vaillant. Suivi in vivo de cellules immunitaires par imagerie multimodale. Imagerie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS021⟩. ⟨tel-02161924v2⟩

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