Influence des modalités d'exercices sur le microbiote intestinal et la masse grasse abdominale : interrelation intestin / tissu adipeux sur des modèles de pathologies inflammatoires.

Abstract : Obesity and Crohn's disease (CD) are two chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by development of visceral fat mass and dysbiosis. Physical activity (PA) has a positive impact on these two parameters. Consequently, PA appears as a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of these patients. In this context, the objective of this work was to study the effect of PA on the microbiota-adipose tissue cross-talk. Our clinical results confirmed the effectiveness of high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) to reduce visceral adipose tissue in overweight and/or obese volunteers. Then, using an animal model of genetic obesity (Zucker rats), we found that HIIT decreases total and visceral fat mass, independently of gut microbiota. Analysis of the lipolysis pathway showed an anti-lipolytic effect of HIIT in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, and this could explain the decrease in visceral adipose tissue. In addition, compared with continuous moderate intensity training, HIIT improved glucose tolerance and the inflammatory status despite the shorter exercise duration. Finally, in an animal model of CD, we found that spontaneous PA increased the expression of tight junction proteins, contributing to the reduction of metabolic endotoxemia. Concomitantly, spontaneous PA promoted healthy bacteria in the colon and increased fecal butyrate levels. These adaptations limited the expansion of mesenteric visceral adipose tissue, a typical CD feature. In conclusion, PA, through different exercise modalities, appears as an attractive and innovative « therapy » for these two chronic inflammatory diseases.
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Florie Maillard. Influence des modalités d'exercices sur le microbiote intestinal et la masse grasse abdominale : interrelation intestin / tissu adipeux sur des modèles de pathologies inflammatoires.. Santé. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAS007⟩. ⟨tel-02161439⟩

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