Habitat et mode de vie de la vallée du Drā (Maroc) : le village d'Asrir n'llemchane

Abstract : This thesis treats the architecture of a traditional village in the southern pre-Sahara in Morocco, with the aim to understand the origins and development of traditional architecture in this region in its cultural and historical context. The village chosen here as representative example is the ksar of Asrir do Ilemchane in the Drâa Valley. This settlement is a highly specific example of fortified agglomeration of living houses with central light shafts.Beyond a general designation as "Berber architecture", this study aimed to understand the enigma of its origin through a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the village architecture. To this end, we tried to distinguish the individual contributions of its dwellers, divided into two main groups: the Draoua or Haratins - the original inhabitants of the village who are farmers-gardeners in the oasis - and the semi-nomadic Ayt Atta Berbers, who practice nomadic grazing in the near the Jbel Saghro mountains and settled more recently as protectors of the sedentary group.Following a presentation of the valley’s natural and historical context and of its composite population, our research approach is based on a detailed architectural documentation in plans and drawings of about thirty houses; participant observation; and a series of interviews with dwellers - including some elders.We study how these houses were built from mud, adobe and rammed-earth, according to the specific expertise of the Haratin builders. This type of housing is put in perspective with the related lifestyle and social organization of the population, both in correlation with palm farming and the irrigation system.This analysis of architecture has allowed to construct hypotheses concerning the spatial development of the village and its protective walls over centuries, and about the recent extension of the village beyond these outer walls. We were thus able to achieve to a first conclusion: although the original concept of a “fortified house-granary”is of Draoua origin, it was later modified and enriched by the Berbers.Lastly, we will discuss how this housing was transformed in tension between tradition and modernity. These transformations are marked by the use of different building techniques and materials, and by the major changes of the local, national and global environment - all the more so since the nearest town, Zagora, expanded up to this particular ksar and eventually absorbed it as a town quarter. This situation created many disruptions in both the ksar form and its daily life.
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Jeanne Marie Gentilleau. Habitat et mode de vie de la vallée du Drā (Maroc) : le village d'Asrir n'llemchane. Histoire. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSE2001⟩. ⟨tel-02160856⟩

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