Le physicien, l’observation et ses présupposés, au travers de l’histoire des modèles d’univers : représentations d’élèves de terminale S

Abstract : The idea is to introduce some elements of the History of Science in the French secondary scientific education in order to give a more authentic view of the Nature of Science (NoS). To do so, a historical inquiry based on seven texts was built and tested in a scientific grade 12 class. This pedagogical unit was about the way scientists switched from geocentric models to heliocentric ones. The purpose was to point out the existence and evolution of presuppositions in physics. This unit was implemented again, this time coupled with three questionnaires that enabled us to explore the image students get of science. The results obtained are encouraging as regards to the evolution of their representations of the observation, more precisely of its metaphysical and theoretical anchoring. Moreover, there seems to be a "naive" realistic vision (knowledge exists in the world) and a difficulty in differentiating the registers used in scientific activity in physics.
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Nicolas Journaux. Le physicien, l’observation et ses présupposés, au travers de l’histoire des modèles d’univers : représentations d’élèves de terminale S. Education. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS397⟩. ⟨tel-02160504⟩

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