Optimisation de l'analyse de la matière organique à l'aide d'un nouveau spectromètre de masse basé sur le CosmOrbitrap dans un contexte de future mission spatiale

Abstract : Mass spectrometry is a key tool in space exploration, for the analysis of organic matter of many Solar System bodies. In this dissertation, we mainly focus on Titan. This amazing object in the Solar System shows a very rich organic chemistry from the ionosphere to the surface. Mass spectrometers aboard the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft have allowed the detection of many organic compounds. However, instrumental limits in terms of analytical performances lead scientists to develop new high resolution mass spectrometry techniques (HRMS).My PhD is rooted to the development of a new high resolution mass analyzer based on the Orbitrap technology, for a space application. This project is named CosmOrbitrap. The efficiency of a simple and compact instrumental version of CosmOrbitrap coupled with a laser ablation ionization process (LAb-CosmOrbitrap) is demonstrated on organic matter analyses in the framework of a future space mission. Univocal identification of pure organics compounds and complex organic mixtures, analytical performances such as mass resolving power, mass accuracy and isotopic abundances determination as well as the impact of the pressure on the mass resolution of organics are part of this dissertation. The study of laboratory analogs of Titan aerosols (named tholins) shows capabilities of the LAb-CosmOrbitrap to provide a deep chemical analysis of exobiological environment.
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Laura Selliez-Vandernotte. Optimisation de l'analyse de la matière organique à l'aide d'un nouveau spectromètre de masse basé sur le CosmOrbitrap dans un contexte de future mission spatiale. Sciences de la Terre. Université d'Orléans, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018ORLE2018⟩. ⟨tel-02160215⟩

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