Couplage de la rObotique et de la simulatioN mEdical pour des proCédures automaTisées (CONECT)

Abstract : Needle-based interventions are among the least invasive surgical approaches to access deep internal structures into organs' volumes without damaging surrounding tissues. Unlike traditional open surgery, needle-based approaches only affect a localized area around the needle, reducing this way the occurrence of traumas and risks of complications \cite{Cowan2011}. Many surgical procedures rely on needles in nowadays clinical routines (biopsies, local anesthesia, blood sampling, prostate brachytherapy, vertebroplasty ...). Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an example of percutaneous procedure that uses heat at the tip of a needle to destroy cancer cells. Such alternative treatments may open new solutions for unrespectable tumors or metastasis (concerns about the age of the patient, the extent or localization of the disease). However, contrary to what one may think, needle-based approaches can be an exceedingly complex intervention. Indeed, the effectiveness of the treatment is highly dependent on the accuracy of the needle positioning (about a few millimeters) which can be particularly challenging when needles are manipulated from outside the patient with intra-operative images (X-ray, fluoroscopy or ultrasound ...) offering poor visibility of internal structures. Human factors, organs' deformations, needle deflection and intraoperative imaging modalities limitations can be causes of needle misplacement and rise significantly the technical level necessary to master these surgical acts. The use of surgical robots has revolutionized the way surgeons approach minimally invasive surgery. Robots have the potential to overcome several limitations coming from the human factor: for instance by filtering operator tremors, scaling the motion of the user or adding new degrees of freedom at the tip of instruments. A rapidly growing number of surgical robots has been developed and applied to a large panel of surgical applications \cite{Troccaz2012}. Yet, an important difficulty for needle-based procedures lies in the fact that both soft tissues and needles tend to deform as the insertion proceeds in a way that cannot be described with geometrical approaches. Standard solutions address the problem of the deformation extracting a set of features from per-operative images (also called \textit{visual servoing)} and locally adjust the pose/motion of the robot to compensate for deformations \cite{Hutchinson1996}. [...]To overcome these limitations, we introduce a numerical method allowing performing inverse Finite Element simulations in real-time. We show that it can be used to control an articulated robot while considering deformations of structures during needle insertion. Our approach relies on a forward FE simulation of a needle insertion (involving complex non-linear phenomena such as friction, puncture and needle constraints).[...]
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 19, 2019 - 12:06:20 PM
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Yinoussa Adagolodjo. Couplage de la rObotique et de la simulatioN mEdical pour des proCédures automaTisées (CONECT). Robotique [cs.RO]. Université de Strasbourg, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018STRAD022⟩. ⟨tel-02160059⟩

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