Influence du foin "à la vapeur" sur la réponse immune de chevaux asthmatiques : du challenge d'exposition (in vivo) à la stimulation (in vitro) des macrophages alvéolaires.

Abstract : Equine asthma is a recurrent obstructive disease of respiratory tract. Several aetiologic factors are known to induceor maintain the severe equine asthma (sEA), however the hay exposure is the main risk factor. The use of treatmentswith corticoids are effective in case of crisis, but ineffective in the absence of sanitary measures. So, since severalyears a device allowing to purify the hay with steam was developed, in order to decrease the dust content and themicrobiological antigens within the hay. The pathophysiology of sEA is complex. Among the main actors of thisimmune response, the alveolar macrophages have an important role in the intiatiation and orientation of the immuneresponse. So, investigating the role of the equine alveolar macrophages of sEA horses would allow to betterunderstand the initiation of the immune response in the sEA. In this context, we focused on the influence of steamedhay on the immune response of sEA horses during an in vivo challenge and an in vitro stimulation of the alveolarmacrophages. First, we studied the systematic and local responses of horses submitted to an in vivo challengeexposure to dry and steamed hay. The first part of this work allowed us to show a beneficial effect of the steamedhay on the mucus tracheal score of sEA horses, however we did not observe any beneficial effect of the steamed hayon the cytological and immune response. The second part of the study allowed us to investigate the response of thealveolar macrophages to steamed hay. The real time microscopy showed differences in the behavior of macrophagesin response (1) to various stimuli, (2) between sEA and CTL horses (3) between HDS resulting from dry hay or fromsteamed hay. Moreover, the protein quantification of IL-1β was signifantly higher and the concentration of IL-10significantly lower in AM supernatant of sEA horses compared to CTL. The TNF-α concentration was higher on AMafter in vitro stimulation in sEA and CTL horses. These results on the alveolar macrophages reponse after both invivo challenge and in vitro stimulation, can be used as a basis for future studies in order to further characterize therole of AM in case of sEA. This triple approach on the horse, the lung and the cell scale allows a global vision of theresponse to an exposure challenge to dry or steamed hay and allows having an optimistic preliminary look on the useof the steamed hay for sEA horses.
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Marie Orard. Influence du foin "à la vapeur" sur la réponse immune de chevaux asthmatiques : du challenge d'exposition (in vivo) à la stimulation (in vitro) des macrophages alvéolaires.. Biologie animale. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMC271⟩. ⟨tel-02159559⟩

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