Microbial assemblage in grapevine's phyllosphere : who is the driver ?

Abstract : Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera L., the main grape species are grown for fruit and wine production over the world is a natural host of a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects. They could also play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality, plant protection and, ultimately, in the pattern of grape fermentation and wine production. Phyllosphere (consists of the aerial parts of the plant) is one of the most prevalent microbial habitats on earth and is quite a neglected milieu, especially in grapevines and many questions related to this microbial habitat, are still unanswered.This thesis is an effort to answer a very fundamental question in microbial ecology- what are the drivers that shape the microbiome in the grapevine's phyllosphere? The phyllosphere microbial communities (PMCs) live at the plant-climate interface and its ability to establish, thrive and reproduce on the leaf or fruit surface depends on several microbial functional traits, such as the ability to attach to the cuticle and to use the foliar nutrients as well as well as to the prevailing climatic conditions like temperature, air humidity and rain. Leaf or fruit chemistry, physiology, and morphological structure differ among plant genotype and species as all these traits have a genetic basis, and this variation may lead to a different combination of PMCs assemblage among plant genotypes. Hence, the first objective of our work was to assess the impacts of grapevine cultivars (varieties of Vitis vinifera L) and grapevine species (entirely different Vitis species) on microbiome assemblage in the phyllosphere at a particular geographic location (to minimize the environmental effects). Later on, impacts of some commercially important grapevine cultivars and terroirs (represented by three French climate zones) were also assessed and compared. Impacts of the season and exterior plant organs (leaf and berries) on microbial taxa structuring in the phyllosphere was also assessed and presented in this work. Furthermore, species-specific impacts on phyllosphere microbiome were also tested and represented.Overall our study assessed and compared the many facets of the factors that may influence themicrobiome structure in the phyllosphere with a special focus on relative selection pressure exerted by grapevine genotype and its interaction with different climatic conditions (or terroir), which may improve our chances to find genes that controls PMCs on phyllosphere, and simultaneously increase our confidence that those genes are actually important in realistic environments and probably those genes would give us new insights for breeding new and healthy grape varieties displaying better traits on their phyllosphere. Moreover, considering that the plant PMCs plays a crucial role in plant health and fitness as it can modulate leaf susceptibility to infection, this study could also be helpful to develop innovative and natural biocontrol methods or phytostimulation against grapevine pathogens or rethink breeding schemes for the creation of innovative resistant varieties.
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Prashant Singh. Microbial assemblage in grapevine's phyllosphere : who is the driver ?. Agricultural sciences. Montpellier SupAgro, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018NSAM0042⟩. ⟨tel-02159427⟩

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