Interfacial and emulsifying properties of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal gum and their fractions

Abstract : Acacia gums (AG, E414 EC) are widely used for its stabilizing, emulsifying and film-forming properties. The aim of this project is to characterize the interfacial and emulsifying properties of Acacia gums. The main results from liquid-liquid interfacial properties study confirmed that A. senegal showed a faster decrease of interfacial tension and a more rapid interfacial film formation. These were in agreement to its greater content of high molar mass-protein AGPs content, the more accessibility of proteinaceous moieties, and the higher molecular flexibility compared to A. seyal. In the same vein, these biochemical and structural advantages of A. senegal were found to be involved in the emulsifying properties of gums. The results from an innovative approach aiming to control high molar mass protein-rich AGPs content in bulk and the total concentration of gum by mixing two well characterised fractions isolated from A. senegal confirmed the functional synergism between the amount of high molar mass protein-rich AGPs and the total gum concentration. Moreover, in the presence of high molar mass protein-rich AGPs in high amount, the emulsion became stable to flocculation/coalescence due to the great protein content allowing electrostatic repulsion between droplets and the high bulk apparent viscosity. These were in agreement when the emulsifying properties of A. senegal and A. seyal were compared. Indeed, A. senegal containing a greater amount of high molar mass protein rich AGPs and uronic acids and its dispersion having a higher apparent viscosity than A. seyal allowing the former to form emulsion with a more stability. Besides, when Acacia gums were used in the form of dried film, the great content of high molar mass protein-rich AGPs and the good accessibility of proteinaceous moieties of A. senegal allowed the smooth homogeneous surface with a hydrophobic characteristic properties of A. senegal dried films. In contrast, A. seyal films was irregular and composed of a repetitive organization as numerous large particle uniformly distributed on surface in the relation to the low degree of branching, high arabinose content favoring intra and inter molecular hydrogen bonding and high hydration ability causing aggregation of polysaccharide chains of A. seyal. According to the results, this thesis brings new knowledge of the relationship between biochemical composition, structural and physicochemical properties, for the first time, across both aspects of gum, i.e. in the form of liquid dispersion and dried films.Keywords: Acacia gums, interfacial and emulsifying properties, arabinogalactan proteins, aroma compounds
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Chutima Aphibanthammakit. Interfacial and emulsifying properties of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal gum and their fractions. Food engineering. Montpellier SupAgro, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018NSAM0029⟩. ⟨tel-02159406⟩

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