Étude par tomographie RX d‟anodes à base de silicium pour batteries Li-ion

Abstract : Because of its theoretical specific capacity ten times higher than that of graphite currently used as active anode material for Li-ion batteries, silicon can play an important role in increasing the energy density of these systems. However, the alloying reaction set up during its lithiation results in a high volume expansion of silicon (~300% compared with only ~10% for graphite) leading to the structural degradation of the electrode, which is significantly affecting its cycling behavior. Understanding in detail these phenomena of degradation and developing strategies to limit their impact on the functioning of the electrode are of undeniable interest for the scientific community of the field. The objective of this thesis work was first to develop a characterization technique adapted to the observation of these degradation phenomena and to draw the necessary information to optimize the formulation of silicon-based anodes. In this context, we have used X-ray tomography which has the advantage of being a non-destructive analytical technique allowing in situ and 3D monitoring of the morphological variations occurring within the electrode during its operation. This technique has been adapted to the case study of silicon by adjusting the analyzed electrode volumes, the spatial resolution and the temporal resolution to the phenomena to be observed. Appropriate image processing procedures were applied to extract from these tomographic analyzes as much qualitative and quantitative information as possible on their morphological variation. In addition, this technique could be coupled to X-ray diffraction to complete the understanding of these phenomena. We have shown that the use of a carbon paper structuring 3D current collector makes it possible to attenuate the morphological deformations of an Si anode and to increase their reversibility in comparison with a conventional copper current collector of plane geometry. We have also shown that the use of graphene nanoplatelets as a conductive additive to replace carbon black can form a conductive network more able to withstand the large volume variations of silicon. Finally, the X-ray tomography allowed studying dynamically and quantitatively the cracking and delamination of an Si electrode deposited on a copper collector. We have thus demonstrated the significant impact of a process of "maturation" of the electrode to minimize these deleterious phenomena of cracking-delamination of the electrode.
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Victor Vanpeene. Étude par tomographie RX d‟anodes à base de silicium pour batteries Li-ion. Matériaux. Insa Lyon; INRS-Energie Matériaux Télécommunications (Canada), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSEI023⟩. ⟨tel-02158199⟩

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