Le Wolaita dans la nation éthiopienne : dynamiques de scolarisation et intégration nationale (1941-1991)

Abstract : At the end of the nineteenth century, Ethiopia expanded its borders to the east, west and south. This process increased the heterogeneity of the kingdom. Wolaita was conquered in 1894. From 1941, Emperor Hayla Sellasé's commitment to centralization came with the objective of cultural homogenization. The national school system was the focus of this policy; it had to spread Amharic language and the values of the Orthodox Christian north. In the 1940s, the first to enter school in Wolaita were the children of northern settlers and Wolaita incorporated to the new polity. In the 1960s, young people from rural areas, recently converted to Protestantism, entered school, determined to take their place in the nation through education. But their willingness to be both Ethiopian and Protestants clashed with official ideology. The Darg's regime (1974-1991) broadened the criteria for national belonging seeking to establish a secular nationalism divorced from cultural and religious discriminations, while working to extend education to the entire population. This has entailed the active support of educated Wolaita. Despite the massive disaffection with the regime in the late 1980s, due to economic disasters and political violence, Wolaita definitely became Ethiopian. Fifty years of dynamics of schooling reveals how local actors, negotiating with Ethiopian and Wolaita identities, created new forms of belonging to the national political community.
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Pierre Guidi. Le Wolaita dans la nation éthiopienne : dynamiques de scolarisation et intégration nationale (1941-1991). Histoire. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA010620⟩. ⟨tel-02158099⟩

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