Conception et construction d'une expérience d'atomes froids : vers un condensat de sodium sur puce

Abstract : In this thesis, we describe the early stages in setting up a new experiment which aims at producing sodium Bose-Einstein condensates. The final apparatus will integrate an atomchip, enabling us to study the non-equilibrium dynamics of low-dimensional quantum gases, as well as their relaxation dynamics. The experimental setup comprises a laser system locked to an iodine rovibronic transition, and an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The latter consists of an oven producing an effusive atomic beam, which is decelerated in a Zeeman slower made with permanent magnets.We thus obtain a flux of 2 x 108 atoms/s, allowing the efficient loading of a magneto-optical trap containing up to 109 atoms. During the slower optimization, we observed a redistribution of the atomic populations from the F = 2 state to the F = 1 state before the entrance of the Zeeman slower. This depumping mechanism, induced by the interaction of the atoms with the slowing beam, has been confirmed by the numerical resolution of the optical Bloch equations describing the system. To circumvent this effect, we now prepare the atoms before the entrance of the slower in the  F = 2 mF = - 2  magnetic substate with a two-frequency light beam. Finally, we designed a magnetic transport system to transfer the atoms from the magnetooptical trap chamber to the condensate chamber. Based on the results of molecular dynamics simulations, we found a performing temporal sequence to move the magnetic trap, and we intend to efficiently transport the atoms over 65 cm in about 1 s.
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Dany Ben Ali. Conception et construction d'une expérience d'atomes froids : vers un condensat de sodium sur puce. Physique [physics]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCD084⟩. ⟨tel-02157986⟩

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