Étude biologique et comportementale de la guêpe Polistes (Megapolistes) olivaceus de Geer à l'île de la Réunion

Abstract : The Réunion wasp, Megapolistes olivaceus de Geer, is an insect well integrated in the life of the inhabitants of the island. Indeed, its larvae, once grilled, are a popular dish of the local population. However, despite this culinary interest, the habits of this insect remain unknown to consumers. As part of our study, we focused on identifying the various biological events that mark the development of bee-eaters during their cycle. In parallel with this exploration, we show that the size of the nests is correlated with the settlement mode of the colonies. Thus, pleometrotic nests (several founders) are 5 times larger than haplometrotic nests (a single founder). Similarly, the environment and more particularly the moisture factor, has a positive influence on the size of the bee-eaters. Thus, in the wettest part of the island (eastern sector) the haplometotic nests are larger. By focusing on the different reproductive strategies that appear in this species, we highlight three types of functioning: - Haplometrotic foundation - Pléometrotic foundation leading to a polygyne society - Formation of polydome colonies and satellite nests Concerning the third form of reproductive strategy, we show that it is a reflection of reproductive conflicts existing between the different members of the colony. Regarding individual behaviors, we highlight the presence of 3 behavioral castes: the inactive, the controllers and the harvesters. In view of the various reproductive strategies exhibited in this species and following experiments with brood adoptions associated with chemical analyzes of the cubic signature of individuals, we highlight the presence of a group selection at the expense of a selection. parents who, according to Hamilton's model, should prevail in social Hymenoptera
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Pascal Theodora. Étude biologique et comportementale de la guêpe Polistes (Megapolistes) olivaceus de Geer à l'île de la Réunion. Zoologie des invertébrés. Université de la Réunion, 2001. Français. ⟨NNT : 2001LARE0018⟩. ⟨tel-02157983⟩

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