Fusion de données de télédétection haute résolution pour le suivi de la neige

Abstract : Remote sensing acquisitions have complementary characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal resolution and can measure different aspects of snow cover (e.g., surface physical properties and snow type). By combining several acquisitions, it should be possible to obtain a precise and continuous monitoring of the snow. However, this task has to face the complexity of processing satellite images and the possible confusion between different materials observed. In particular, the estimation of fractional information, i.e., the amount of snow in each pixel, requires to know the proportion of the materials present in a scene. These proportions can be obtained performing spectral unmixing. The challenge is then to effectively exploit the information of different natures that are provided by the multiple acquisitions in order to produce accurate snow maps.Three main objectives are addressed by this thesis and can be summarized by the three following questions:- What are the current limitations of state-of-the-art techniques for the estimation of snow cover extent from optical observations?- How to exploit a time series for coping with the spectral variability of materials?- How can we take advantage of multimodal acquisitions from optical sensors for estimating snow cover maps?A complete study of the various snow products from the MODIS satellite is proposed. It allows the identification of numerous limitations, the main one being the high rate of errors during the estimation of the snow fraction (approximately 30%).The experimental analysis allowed to highlight the sensitivity of the spectral unmixing methods against the spectral variability of materials.Given these limitations, we have exploited the MODIS time series to propose a new endmembers estimation approach, addressing a critical step in spectral unmixing. The low temporal evolution of the medium (except snow) is then used to constrain the estimation of the endmembers not only on the image of interest, but also on images of the previous days. The effectiveness of this approach, although demonstrated here, remains limited by the spatial resolution of the sensor.Data fusion has been considered aiming at taking advantage of multiple acquisitions with different characteristics in term of resolution available on the same scene. Given the limitations of the actual methods in the case of multispectral sensors, a new fusion approach has been proposed. Through the formulation of a new model and its resolution, the fusion between optical sensors of all types can be achieved without consideration of their characteristics. The various experiments on the estimation of snow maps show a clear interest of a better spatial resolution to isolate the snow covered areas. The improvement in spectral resolution will improve future approaches based on spectral unmixing.This work explores the new possibilities of development for the observation of snow, but also for the combined use of the satellite images for the observation of the Earth in general.
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Théo Masson. Fusion de données de télédétection haute résolution pour le suivi de la neige. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAT112⟩. ⟨tel-02157972⟩

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