Diversité biologique des enfants décédés en période périnatale et traitements funéraires au Kerma classique : Les exemples de la nécropole 8B-51 (Kerma classique, Nord Soudan) et des cimetières de Blandy-les-Tours (Xe-XIIe siècle, France) et de Provins (XIIIe-XVIIIe siècle, France)

Abstract : Despite the high rates of child mortality in past populations, subjects deceased in perinatal period were often neglected in bioarchaeological and paleoanthropology studies. Unlike biological analysis on adults, investigations on newborns rarely include individual or populational variability comparisons as a major component. In the present work, we will focus on metrical and non-metrical diversity of subject deceased between 22 and 48 amenorrhea weeks, based on the biological study of 116 subjects from three archaeological collections (one kerma and two medieval and modern) and one current virtual collection with 364 individuals. The first research axis characterizes the intra-individual, inter-individual and populational variability, and differences by age at death in both samples. The second line of research aims to identify criteria making it possible to estimate individual morbidity and live birth on dry bones, informations that are needed to understand the child’s position in society. Biological studies reveal for the first research axis shape differences by age at death and populations, as well as the existence of directional and fluctuating asymmetries. Results provide evidences of strong biological proximity in the kerma group, potentially indicating of endogamy. On the contrary, the diversity of the medieval and modern group appears broader and could reflect socio-geographical factors or secular trends. The second line of research reveals the mechanical sensitivity of muscular insertions as a key parameter for tracking of live-born subjects. The study of the kerma collection provides the first archaeological identification of the supernumerary cervical rib, detected as a morbidity criterion in perinatal period. Lastly, crossing of biological and archaeological data on the 8B-51 necropolis provides an interpretative framework for funerary treatments dedicated to the perinatal age group in Classic Kerma.
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Caroline Partiot. Diversité biologique des enfants décédés en période périnatale et traitements funéraires au Kerma classique : Les exemples de la nécropole 8B-51 (Kerma classique, Nord Soudan) et des cimetières de Blandy-les-Tours (Xe-XIIe siècle, France) et de Provins (XIIIe-XVIIIe siècle, France). Anthropologie biologique. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0252⟩. ⟨tel-02157918v2⟩

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