Ontogenèse de la recherche alimentaire durant la phase juvénile : cas des prédateurs plongeurs

Abstract : The juvenile phase of long lived-species is poorly understood despite its critical importance for the future of animal populations. Thanks to new bio-technologies, in this thesis we managed to monitor the ontogeny of foraging behaviour in 52 juveniles from 3 deep-diving marine predator species (king penguins, emperor penguins and southern elephant seals) in the French Southern territories over the first year after their independence. The juveniles of these 3 species showed a very large dispersion range over huge distances in the Southern Ocean. Their dispersion was characterized at departure by partially innate behaviour in their orientation preferences. Juveniles showed a strong dependency to the local oceanic currents orientation and frontal zones. More, they showed a spatial segregation with adults. Juveniles were quickly able to dive very deep. Their diving and foraging skills increased progressively with time. However, juveniles never completely reached the efficiency of adults, even after one year at sea. Some juveniles did not manage to increase their foraging skills while their environment became less productive; these juveniles may have died at sea, probably because of starvation. The first year at sea appears thus to be critical for the 3 studied species, as substantial mortality occurred in each case. This thesis presents new information about the ontogeny of dispersion and the foraging behaviour in marine deep-diving predators.
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Florian Orgeret. Ontogenèse de la recherche alimentaire durant la phase juvénile : cas des prédateurs plongeurs. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de La Rochelle, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LAROS006⟩. ⟨tel-02157076⟩

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