La gouvernance territoriale par les chartes foncières locales dans la région des hauts bassins / burkina faso

Abstract : In territory management, participation and coordination aim to ensure more efficiency. Thus, in Burkina Faso rural areas, the issue of land security has led since 2009 to the establishment of local land charters. These are based on local natural resource management agreements for common use in accordance with sectoral laws and respecting local specificities. In practice, the local land charter faces the need of uses and activities to be articulated and coordinated for a sustainable production. This issue is analysed by the main research question: "what roles do local land charters play in the governance of the territories that have them"? The main hypothesis is that: "the local land charter allows territorial governance, because it favours knowledge of the territory, changes in the practices of the actors and it involves territorial effects by the reconfiguration of the networks of actors". The case studies of Bama and Koumbia local land charters were conducted in the Hauts-Bassins Region of Western Burkina Faso, an area of high agricultural production in the country. Indeed, the rural commune of Koumbia is in the cotton and agropastoral basin and the village of Bama is in one of the first rice plains of the country. Semi-directive interviews and direct observation have permitted verification of our hypothesis through the framework of the analysis of territorial governance. The content analysis, the territorial diagnosis and the typology of the management rules known by the actors are the specific methods of data processing. The interviews around the practices implemented by the local actors allowed to refine analysis in order to identify the stakes that the use of the land charters poses. The results of the content analysis show that the local land charters ensure that the multi-use of resources, and coordination of the different decision centers to allow the polycentrism of the rules are taken into account. They formalise new ways of management of use conflicts that favour consensus building at the local level. In Koumbia, taking into account the agricultural use of crop residues falls within this framework. Nevertheless, in both studied situations, the learning required for negotiation between stakeholders around issues is weak. The results of the territorial diagnosis show that the collective interests are oriented towards the management of non-timber forest products, the agricultural or fishery production, the collective sale and community activities around the social infrastructures. The key players in the endogenous management of common-used resources are local associations whose creation’s objectives are different from these issues of collective interest. Co-operative relationships are paramount and followed by hierarchical relationships between actors. The actors who carry the endogenous initiatives around common-used resources do not have the management of these resources as main objectives. This is a challenge as to the sustainability of such initiatives. In addition, the issue of endogenous management of non-timber forest products is found in the risk of spaces fragmentation through the partitioning of common resources exploitation areas. This second issue is shared between actual practices and the rules of the charter around crop residues. It allows update of individual ownership logic around common-used resources because the owner can allow or restrict access. This shared logic to the charter and to the practices of local actors shows the need to build a common and shared vision of the territory in order to promote territorial governance.
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Sheila Karambiri. La gouvernance territoriale par les chartes foncières locales dans la région des hauts bassins / burkina faso. Géographie. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MON30075⟩. ⟨tel-02155858⟩

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