Optimisation de la fertilisation soufrée pour améliorer le rendement et la qualité grainière du colza : impacts des interactions Soufre/Azote et du changement climatique, identifications d'idéotypes.

Abstract : Oilseed rape is an oleoproteaginous crop with high sulfur (S) demanding and characterized by a low S use efficiency (SUE). The decline in atmospheric S deposition, the existence of strong interactions between S and nitrogen (N) metabolism and the predicted increase in terrestrial temperatures can lead to an alteration in seeds yields and quality. In this context, using in planta (controlled conditions and fields experiments) and in silico (numerical experiments through an agro-ecophysiological model SuMoToRI, “Sulfur Model Towards Rapeseed Improvement”) approaches, the main objectives of this thesis were to study the impact of (i) different S and N fertilization strategies, (ii) climate change and (iii) the variability of the model’s “plant” parameters on growth as well as the yield components and the seeds quality of oilseed rape.This study confirmed the synergistic effects of S and N inputs and their antagonistic effects when of one of the two elements was in excessive rate on EUS and EUN, highlighting the importance of balancing S/N inputs. Delaying S input has improved seed protein quality by increasing the relative abundance of napins (cysteine-rich seed storage proteins). Two seed protein quality indices could be proposed (i) seeds S content, strongly correlated with relative napine abundance and (ii) the ratio napins:cruciferins-30kDa (cruciferins : S-poor seed storage proteins). S), making it possible to assess the S/N balance inputs. The simulations carried-out with the model showed that the adjustment of S fertilization must be performed in a context of increasing temperature and/or a reduction of incident radiation which lead to a decrease of biomass and an increase of S stored in leaves. Overall, these results questioned conventional fertilization strategies and the use of varietal and crop ideotypes adapted to S and N fertilization strategies as well as to climate change.
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Emilie Poisson. Optimisation de la fertilisation soufrée pour améliorer le rendement et la qualité grainière du colza : impacts des interactions Soufre/Azote et du changement climatique, identifications d'idéotypes.. Sciences agricoles. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMC264⟩. ⟨tel-02155831v1⟩

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