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Le folklore dansé en bas-Languedoc : la politique des Treilles de l'Ancien Régime à la cinquième République.

Abstract : Traditional dancing in Lower LanguedocMany are the popular practices which have made a lasting impression on Occitan society since the beginning of the 16th century. Traditional dances but also the music of these dances, the instrumentation itself as well as the making and wearing of local costumes took part in the Languedoc populations ‘daily life until the very end of the 19th century. In a restricted geographical area, corresponding to a wine monoculture zone, these popular practices also played a leading role in regional and national History: they were privileged witnesses of political and societal events, and omnipresent during local feasts but also in major compulsory official demonstrations from the government. The remarkable longevity of these practices, coming from the Renaissance, is dependent on their adaptation to the different Languedoc societies, their regional representativeness, as well as a will of maintenance expressed by all political schemes and institutions.The whole Languedoc society recognised itself in these mirror-dances, worked out throughout the old regime; they regularly conveyed to authorities the assent or the disagreement of the people.Local popular practices didn’t however escape from some multiple cultural interferences with the aristocratic society, the artistic, military or academic way of teaching and also with the different cultures which crossed Europe as soon as the middle of the 19th century.Moreover, the end of peasant society and the advent of urban society undermined popular and mainly rural practices in most regions. In Lower Languedoc, as soon as the end of the 19th century, the survival of the main regional dances complied with the good will of the authorities which financed onerous reconstitutions and remunerated practitioners henceforth turned towards other societal modes. Popular tradition slowly became a represented and institutionalized folklore which met the same ministerial rules as the sports or dance academic teaching. The first surveys concerning the regional heritage as well as the first folklore specialists ‘works however allow to rebuild local dances (the “branles”) practised for centuries during annual marches and festive parades. Losses were however important, numerous corporative instrumental and poetic practices disappeared with the very last practitioners. In Lower Languedoc, the first folklorists of the inter-war period managed to collect in-extremis traditional practices that passed in a few year from the street to the scene. Most of them lost their popular nature by finding an audience, while Trellises, Little Horses and other dances from local festive parades kept the essentials of their social and political privilege.Folklore until then alive mainly became a study subject as well as a revivalist hobby, supported by the “felibre” movement and the national institutions.Four renewal periods have shaken up the popular traditional practice into a folk then ethnologic subject: the industrial revolution and the rural depopulation in the end of the 19th century induced the new urban society to artificially maintain practices which were no longer taught because of family determinism. Since the thirties, various national institutions encouraged traditional practices for teaching purposes. In the fifties; folklorists published the first specialized studies; these ones were taken into account by the ethnologists of the seventies.
Keywords : Languedoc Revival Folk
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Serge Boyer. Le folklore dansé en bas-Languedoc : la politique des Treilles de l'Ancien Régime à la cinquième République.. Linguistique. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MON30070⟩. ⟨tel-02155001⟩

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