Communautés fongiques de sédiments marins de subsurface : diversité, origine et rôle écologique

Abstract : Over the past two decades, investigations on deep marine sediments have revealed the occurrenceand activity of unexpected microbial communities. Many representatives of Archaea and Bacteria were reportedbut micro-eukaryotes and especially fungal communities are still poorly studied in this ecosystem. In this underexplored context, molecular- and culture-based approaches were used to characterize the diversityof fungal communities in deep subsurface sediments using the Canterbury Basin as a model system. The main results of this work are: (i) The molecular DNA-based approach provided direct evidence that the fungal communities persist until the record depth of 1,740 meters below sea floor. (ii) Supplementary approaches targeting rRNA and mRNA revealed their metabolic activity and highlighted first hints into the fungal functions at350 meters below sea floor, mainly related to growth, adaptation to in situ environmental constraints andmicrobial interactions. (iii) The culture based approach allowed establishing a culture collection of 183 fungal isolates with ecophysiological characteristics indicating their ability to adapt to in situ conditions. (iv) This culture collection seems to represent a reservoir of secondary metabolites as many genes involved in secondary metabolites pathways were revealed. The fungal collection established may be considered as an untapped resource to explore for biotechnological applications. This work demonstrating the persistence and activity of fungal communities in deep subsurface sediments (i)broadens our view of microbial diversity in these environments and (ii) raises hypotheses about the ecologicalroles of fungi in the deep biosphere
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Vanessa Rédou. Communautés fongiques de sédiments marins de subsurface : diversité, origine et rôle écologique. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014BRES0095⟩. ⟨tel-02153470⟩

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