Taphonomie osseuse humaine au micro-scanner

Abstract : Introduction: Estimating post-mortem delay (the time between the discovery of a dead body and the time of death) is an important element in a police investigation. This estimate is difficult when the body found is in the skeleton state. There is little tool to do this.This work is part of the desire to develop methods for estimating the post mortem interval on bone remains. This thesis focuses on providing new data using micro-imaging in bone taphonomy. In particular, we try to highlight the interactions between post mortem human bone and its environment.Materials and methods: Human bones from several body donations to science were studied by micro-scanning. These bones have been conserved prospectively for known periods of time. The bones were examined during conservation in a controlled environment and stable in temperature and hygrometry. Four axes of experimentation were retained.A first line of work focused on measuring the precision of the micro-scanner during repeated measurements. This work was done on fragments of cranial vaults and phalanges.A second line of work was carried out on the impact of the initial mode of preservation of the sample. We compared the architectural evolution with micro-scanning of cranial vault fragments preserved in 10% formalin or freezing at -20 ° C. Each sample was kept for 12 months.A third line of work focused on describing the microCT evolution of bone fragments preserved in standard medium over various periods (cranial vault fragments over 4 weeks and 10 weeks - rib fragments over 6 and 36 months).Results: It has been shown that micro-scanner acquisitions are accurate and reproducible.We have shown that there are many architectural variations in the storage of bone in formaldehyde or freezing. This shows the importance of fresh bone work in a taphonomic context.Significant architectural modifications have been demonstrated during bone conservation in a standard and controlled environment. These changes occur as early as the first two weeks of storage for the vault fragments and are also observed after 6 and 36 months of storage for the rib fragments.Discussion and conclusion: This work has made it possible to highlight the interest that micro-imaging represents for the study of bone architecture. This is a precise and non-destructive technology of the sample. The contribution of the micro-scanner lies in the capacity of architectural analysis of large volumes. Our results confirm the influence of conservation medium and time on the bone substrate. Architectural modifications are already observable after variable conservation times (from a few weeks to several months). These delays are very short with regard to the limitation period in criminal cases and taphonomy in archeology. These results deserve to be confronted with data on a larger number of individuals, longer storage periods, and many conservation environments.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 12, 2019 - 11:27:07 AM
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Erwan Le Garff. Taphonomie osseuse humaine au micro-scanner. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIL2S040⟩. ⟨tel-02153443⟩



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