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Contribution des pollinisateurs dans la production de colza et de tournesol en zone atelier « Plaine et Val de Sèvre »

Abstract : Insect pollination is essential for over 70% of crops around the world. However, the contribution of pollinators to crop production and the insects involved in crop pollination have rarely been studied. Moreover, assessments of pollinator contributions have mostly been conducted on a small scale or under simplified conditions, which do not represent the real contributions at the field scale and do not take into account possible interactions between pollinators and farming practices. The aim of this study is to quantify directly under field conditions, the contribution of pollinators in two crops frequently cultivated in Europe: oilseed rape and sunflower. Estimations are realized both at the plant and at the field scale to understand mechanisms that increase crop production. Our studies identify also these crops’ pollinators.In a first step, we quantified the contributions of pollinators to oilseed rape and sunflower yield. Oilseed rape and sunflower share a pollinator guild - the honeybee. Wild bees also increase oilseed rape yield. Pollinators increase the yield of oilseed rape by up to 35% and of sunflower by up to 40%. At the plant scale, pollinators increase pollination success and consequently the number of seeds per plant.In a second step, we compared for oilseed rape the yield and the monetary contributions of pollinators and farming practices by taking their potential interactions more accurately into account. We show that the benefits of pollinators and farming practices on yield were additive except for insecticide use, which decreased the contribution of pollinators. In addition, we show that pollinators were important contributors to the farmers’ incomes by increasing gain by 250 € per hectare while some practices were very expensive for farmers.Finally, the effect of pollinators was studied on oilseed rape seed quality - another component of crop production. We show that honeybees improve seed quality by increasing the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in seeds and decreasing trans-saturated and saturated fatty acids. In some years, honeybees increased also the percentage of lipids per seed.We conclude, pollinators are essential for crop production by increasing both yield, monetary gain and quality. Several measures must be taken to promote pollinators in agricultural land in order to conserve them and ensure sustainable crop production for these two crops.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 7, 2019 - 6:34:07 PM
Last modification on : Sunday, June 26, 2022 - 1:55:32 AM


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Thomas Perrot. Contribution des pollinisateurs dans la production de colza et de tournesol en zone atelier « Plaine et Val de Sèvre ». Sciences agricoles. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018UBFCK023⟩. ⟨tel-02151234⟩



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