Étude des concentrations et de la composition des PM₁₀ sur le littoral du Nord de la France : Evaluation des contributions maritimes de l'espace Manche-Mer du Nord

Abstract : The Nord-Pas-de-Calais region is one of the most concerned areas in France by exceedance of the PM₁₀ mean daily limit value (50 µg m-³). The particulate atmospheric background level can also be high on the coastal zone, despite the absence of any urban and industrial sources at its vicinity. Numerous studies have been performed regarding those sources, but there is still a lack of knowledge about the impact of emissions resulting from the marine compartment, including natural emissions (sea salts) and anthropogenic emissions (maritime traffic). Two measurement campaigns have been achieved, in 2013 at Cape Gris-Nez and in the first trimester 2014, simultaneously at Cape Gris-Nez and in the harbour of Calais. Concentrations of PM₁₀ were recorded and chemical composition was determined (metals, water soluble ions, Ec, OC, organic tracers). In 2013, the evolutions of PM₁₀ levels at Cape Gris-Nez and in the region similar, reflecting the atmospheric background fluctuation. NO₃-, OC, SO₄²-, CI-, Na⁺ and NH₄⁺ were found as the major species and correspond to 69% of PM₁₀ mass. The proportion of these species evolves depending on the season and the meteorological conditions (temperature, wind speed and direction). High PM₁₀ concentration situations are characterized by high proportion of ammonium nitrate. Data collected in Calais show that maritime traffic emissions increase the number of ultrafine particles in the atmosphere. Under this influence, NOx and SO₂ concentrations are higher, as those of V, Ni and Co, species that could be used as maritime traffic tracers. 10 sources were identified and apportioned by matrix factorization. In average, in 2013 at Cape Gris-Nez, 41% of PM₁₀ come from secondary inorganic aerosols, 37% from sea salts and 10% from biomass combustion. This last contribution can reach 17% in winter. Maritime traffic represents a higher contribution to PM₁₀ than road traffic, 5% against 2%.
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Cloé Roche. Étude des concentrations et de la composition des PM₁₀ sur le littoral du Nord de la France : Evaluation des contributions maritimes de l'espace Manche-Mer du Nord. Autre. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016DUNK0514⟩. ⟨tel-02151019⟩

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