Machiavel et le(s) machiavélisme(s) : l’esprit du droit

Abstract : Common sense and philosophy are arguing about the interpretation of Machiavelli’s works. The first one accuses him of being even worse than a sophist, because his historical part would have been to inoculate perversity in political practice and theory. Whereas the second one claims that he would be one of the first builders of modern political science, who would have thought with lucidity the conditions of reasons of State. At first, we try to defend the pertinency of those interpretations, which bring to light, both, a fundamental aspect of Machiavellian’s lessons: the necessity, on the one hand, of “getting into the evil” in politics, in order to rise the society out of anomie, and, on the other hand, the impossibility for the subject who resolves to do it of being well-intentioned and well-advised. The subject of Machiavellianism, indeed, is in a relation of strangeness to the objective institution of State and to universal; he wants and thinks his "stato", and not the State. Paradoxically, however, it is because he is endowed with malignity that he can take part in the effectiveness of right. We then try to show how Machiavelli strove to solve this paradox. His originality consists in not relying on the idealistic requisites of practical reason: neither those of social morality nor those of consequentialist ethics. From a materialistic perspective, he opts for an equivocal advice addressed to a plurality of recipients; narrow-minded recipients, with opposite appetites, but able to restrain and to enhance one another, in spite of themselves. Our thesis, finally, is that the "republic" performatively activated by his advice is a non-Hegelian state, an ecological balance order between socio-political powers of different but paired species.
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Jocelyn De Sinéty. Machiavel et le(s) machiavélisme(s) : l’esprit du droit. Philosophie. Université de Nanterre - Paris X, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PA100088⟩. ⟨tel-02150305⟩

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