Caractérisation des particules dans les lits à galets : expérimentation, développements, méthodologiques et applications in situ

Abstract : The influence of fluvial systems dynamics on riverine landscape patterns is the consequence of complex ecosystem dynamics. These driving factors can be analysed at different spatiotemporal scales of the fluvial system (for example: river basin, functional units, alluvial megaforms or sedimentary particles). The dynamic of fluvial systems depends on the equilibrium between solid and liquid fluids. For this reason, the geomorphological status of watercourses can be described from a sedimentary perspective taking into account general trends at large scale, local characteristics such as incision, aggradation, sedimentary migration or the alteration of particles’ geometrical properties that constitute bed load. Thus, a better understanding of the influence of past and present sedimentary flows on the geomorphological status of watercourses has at the same time an ecological impact (permeability of both the alluvial layer and the hyporheic zone and its self-filtration function (Datry et al., 2008)), a political impact (related to flood management, erosion risks and issues or hydraulic facilities) or even a philosophical issue (what is the appropriate reference for what fluvial system? What is the role of Humanity on these anthropized environments and at what extent?).Thus, the development of methodological tools to characterize sedimentary flows or the observed dynamics on rivers, is considered a major and rising research issue. The research studies described in this thesis are structured in three distinct topics: (1) physical properties of sedimentary particles; (2) their mobility; (3) their transformation as a consequence of abrasion.In this context, we have analysed the relationship between breakage and low recovery rates for natural tracers (limestone pebbles) equipped with low frequency passive transponders (PIT-tag). In addition, we have tested the use of synthetic pebbles to create new tracers equipped with high frequency active transponders (a-UHF), more performant than PIT-tags. Secondly, we have developed a new search and location field methodology specially, adapted to these new transponders. Thirdly, we have tested the sensibility of the toolbox developed by Roussillon et al. (2009), design to measure the roundness of coarse sedimentary particles, to different entry parameters. We have confirmed its interest to (1) analyse the relationship between particles normalized abrasion and its roundness trends; (2) analyse the hydrosedimentary dynamics at a river basin scale. We have included several recommendations to apply this toolbox in the appropriate conditions. Finally, we have performed a comparative analysis between particles’ density and shape and its influence on bedrock transport. These results highlight the significant influence of shape on travelled distance in comparison with density.
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Mathieu Cassel. Caractérisation des particules dans les lits à galets : expérimentation, développements, méthodologiques et applications in situ. Géographie. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSEN087⟩. ⟨tel-02150081⟩

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