Plant photodynamic stress : study of molecular and cellular mechanisms in plant and plant cells upon porphyrin treatment

Abstract : Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) has emerged as an alternative modality to strive against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. This method, based on the use of photosensitizers including porphyrins, has also shown substantial efficiency to kill plant pathogens. This led us to propose an APDT approach in the field of agriculture. During this thesis work, we were interested in the "green" side of this approach. Thus, we performed an in-depth study on two plant species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) and on Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 suspension culture (TBY-2 cells) using anionic and cationic water-soluble porphyrins. We have shown that none of these porphyrins tested at high concentration (⩾ 80 μM) was cytotoxic on plantlets or suspension cells under dark conditions. On the other hand, the cationic porphyrins tested at low concentration (3.5 μM) were lethal for Arabidopsis while they only slowed the growth of tomato plantlets under 16 h photoperiod. Surprisingly, the same anionic porphyrins tested at high concentrations did not induce growth alterations of both plantlets. This situation is reversed in TBY-2 cells, which are much more sensitive to photoactivated anionic porphyrins that induce apoptosis-like cell death. TBY-2 cells allowed to understand i) the interactions of anionic porphyrins with the cell wall and ii) the induced cellular and molecular mechanisms in response to photodynamic stress. In conclusion, these preliminary studies on the plants and plant cells suggest the possibility of developing APDT in agriculture. It will be targeted to plant pathogens without any side effects on plants of agronomic interest and soil microorganisms.
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Mohammad Issawi. Plant photodynamic stress : study of molecular and cellular mechanisms in plant and plant cells upon porphyrin treatment. Agronomy. Université de Limoges, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018LIMO0081⟩. ⟨tel-02150080⟩

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