Phénoménologie et métaphysique dans la pensée de Max Scheler

Abstract : Max Scheler’s phenomenological thinking is based on the idea that love is the source of all knowledge. Defined as the ultimate intentional act, love is an essentially personal act. This claim drives the philosopher to consider the existence of an infinite personal God – a loving God - as an eidetic necessity. This raises the following questions: does the essence of God arise from an intuitive experience grounded in love? Or is love conceived as the source of all knowledge according to an existing representation of God defined as love? Taking Scheler’s position on the matter as the guiding thread of my research, I examine the possibility of a phenomenology free from any metaphysical presupposition. To this end, several definitions of the term metaphysics will be examined: ontological realism, idealist subjectivism, and theological Weltanschauung. I first question Scheler’s thought through the prism of the debate surrounding Husserl’s idealist turn by asking whether his personalist phenomenology can be described as « realist » and if so, in what sense. Then I examine all the religious axioms that Scheler uses in his phenomenology to highlight what I call a « theo-logic », i.e. an implicit theological conception of phenomenological logic. Finally, I look at how Scheler criticizes phenomenology in the hope of revealing its implicit metaphysical presuppositions. My thesis thus sheds light on why Scheler, at the end of his life, decided to put phenomenology aside and to define his thinking in terms of a new metaphysics.
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Théodora Domenech. Phénoménologie et métaphysique dans la pensée de Max Scheler. Philosophie. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MON30069⟩. ⟨tel-02149846⟩

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