Traduction commentée du Kitāb Riyāḍat al-nafs wa Adab al-nafs (Du redressement de l’âme et De l’éducation de l’âme) d’al-Ḥakīm al-Tirmidhī (m. vers 300/910)

Abstract : This thesis proposes the translation of and commentary on the Riyāḍa and the Adab al-nafs of al-Ḥakīm al-Tirmidhī, a Khorasanian Sunni mystic from the 9th and 10th centuries of the Common Era, known for the impact that his Kitāb khatm al-awliyā' had on posterior thought, that of Ibn 'Arabī (638/1240) in particular. These are two fundamental textbooks of spiritual anthropology that testify to an ancient Islamic philosophical mysticism assimilating elements of Neoplatonic thought and Eastern religious traditions such as Manichaeism and Buddhism. The systematization of the concept of holiness (walāya) characterizes this thought that could be described as theosophical: in the Riyāḍa and the Adab are thus exposed the rules of the education of the ego in order to restore the ascendancy of the heart on the latter, transforming the believer into a saint (walī). Tirmidhī's ethic is similar to the Buddhist principle that seemingly identical acts come either from selfless motivation or from a selfish motivation. The heart, the cognitive organ and the organ of action, produces acts in accordance with the knowledge of the Law and divine attributes, while the soul appropriates acts to satisfy its selfish passion. The anthropology of the sage of Termez has a cosmological dimension, also characteristic of mystical theosophy: the saint, freed from the ego, sees appearing in his heart the divine order governing the worlds and thus becomes a lieutenant of God, the instrument of a divine manifestation which establishes within the community of believers and in the world the order of Oneness (tawḥīd) and Law that the cult of the ego transgresses and corrupts. The characteristics of the saint in Tirmidhī - his theophanic knowledge and power - have obvious correspondences with those attributed to the imam in Shi'ism.
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Gabrielle Villetard. Traduction commentée du Kitāb Riyāḍat al-nafs wa Adab al-nafs (Du redressement de l’âme et De l’éducation de l’âme) d’al-Ḥakīm al-Tirmidhī (m. vers 300/910). Religions. PSL Research University, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLEP039⟩. ⟨tel-02149745⟩

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