, Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), European Union (EU) 28, Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC), European Economic Area (EEA), European Free Trade Association (EFTA), Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), Latin American Integration Association (LAIA), Regional integrations included: Andean Community (CAN), ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA)

, World Economic Outlook: Adjusting to Lower Commodity Prices, 1995.

P. D. Lao, Liberia, (nm) Libya, (nm) Sudan, (nm) Syria, (nm) Tajikistan, 1995.

A. , , 1995.

, Afghanistan

A. , , 2000.

. Armenia, Cabo Verde, 1995.

C. Rica, , 1995.

, Sao Tomé and Principe

S. Leone, , 1995.

E. Salvador, , 1995.

. Gambia, , 1996.

G. , Notes: -Year of accession to WTO between brackets. -nm: not member Sources: -International Monetary Fund, 1995.

D. Acemoglu, S. Johnson, and J. A. Robinson, Institutions as a fundamental cause of long-run growth, Handbook of economic growth, vol.1, pp.385-472, 2005.

N. D. Aitken, The effect of the EEC and EFTA on European trade: A temporal cross-section analysis, The American Economic Review, vol.63, issue.5, pp.881-892, 1973.

F. Alcalá and A. Ciccone, Trade and productivity. The Quarterly journal of economics, vol.119, pp.613-646, 2004.

M. Alexeev and R. Conrad, The elusive curse of oil, The Review of Economics and Statistics, vol.91, issue.3, pp.586-598, 2009.

R. Almeida and A. M. Fernandes, Openness and technological innovations in developing countries: evidence from firm-level surveys, The Journal of Development Studies, vol.44, issue.5, pp.701-727, 2008.

R. Álvarez and R. Fuentes, Paths of development, specialization, and natural resources abundance, p.1, 2006.

J. E. Anderson, A theoretical foundation for the gravity equation, The American Economic Review, vol.69, issue.1, pp.106-116, 1979.

J. E. Anderson and E. Van-wincoop, Gravity with gravitas: a solution to the border puzzle, American economic review, vol.93, issue.1, pp.170-192, 2003.

J. E. Anderson and Y. V. Yotov, Gold standard gravity (No. w17835), 2012.

J. E. Anderson and Y. V. Yotov, Terms of trade and global efficiency effects of free trade agreements, Journal of International Economics, vol.99, pp.279-298, 1990.

M. S. Andreano, L. Laureti, and P. Postiglione, Economic growth in MENA countries: Is there convergence of per-capita GDPs?, Journal of Policy Modeling, vol.35, issue.4, pp.669-683, 2013.

N. Apergis and J. E. Payne, The oil curse, institutional quality, and growth in MENA countries: Evidence from time-varying cointegration, Energy Economics, vol.46, pp.1-9, 2014.

M. Arellano and S. Bond, Some tests of specification for panel data: Monte Carlo evidence and an application to employment equations. The review of economic studies, vol.58, pp.277-297, 1991.

M. Arellano and O. Bover, Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models, Journal of econometrics, vol.68, issue.1, pp.29-51, 1995.

G. Atkinson and K. Hamilton, Savings, growth and the resource curse hypothesis, World development, issue.11, pp.1793-1807, 2003.

R. M. Auty, Natural resource endowment, the state and development strategy, Journal of International Development: The Journal of the Development Studies Association, vol.9, issue.4, pp.651-663, 1997.

C. Azariadis and A. Drazen, Threshold externalities in economic development, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.105, issue.2, pp.501-526, 1990.

M. Bahmani-oskooee and F. Niroomand, Openness and economic growth: An empirical investigation, 1999.

S. L. Baier and J. H. Bergstrand, Do free trade agreements actually increase members' international trade?, Journal of international Economics, vol.71, issue.1, pp.72-95, 2007.

S. L. Baier and J. H. Bergstrand, , 2009.

S. L. Baier, J. H. Bergstrand, and E. Vidal, Free trade agreements in the Americas: Are the trade effects larger than anticipated, World Economy, vol.30, issue.9, pp.1347-1377, 2007.

B. A. Balassa, Economic development and integration, 1965.

R. Baldwin and D. Taglioni, Gravity for dummies and dummies for gravity equations (No. w12516), National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.

R. J. Barro and X. Sala-i-martin, Convergence across states and regions. Brookings papers on economic activity, pp.107-182, 1991.

R. J. Barro, Economic growth in a cross section of countries. The quarterly journal of economics, vol.106, pp.407-443, 1991.

R. J. Barro, Human capital and growth in cross-country regressions, 1998.

R. J. Barro and X. Sala-i-martin, Convergence. Journal of Political Economy, vol.100, issue.2, pp.223-251, 1992.

R. J. Barro and X. Sala-i-martin, Economic growth, 1995.

R. J. Barro and X. Sala-i-martin, Technological diffusion, convergence, and growth, Journal of Economic Growth, vol.2, issue.1, pp.1-26, 1997.

M. Bartkowska and A. Riedl, Regional convergence clubs in Europe: Identification and conditioning factors, Economic Modelling, vol.29, issue.1, pp.22-31, 2012.

W. J. Baumol, Productivity growth, convergence, and welfare: what the long-run data show, The American Economic Review, pp.1072-1085, 1986.

T. Bayoumi and B. Eichengreen, Is Regionalism Simply a Diversion? Evidence from the Evolution of the EC and EFTA, Regionalism versus Multilateral Trade Arrangements, vol.6, pp.141-168, 1997.

J. H. Bergstrand, The gravity equation in international trade: some microeconomic foundations and empirical evidence. The review of economics and statistics, pp.474-481, 1985.

J. H. Bergstrand, The generalized gravity equation, monopolistic competition, and the factor-proportions theory in international trade. The review of economics and statistics, pp.143-153, 1989.

J. C. Berthélemy, Clubs de convergence et équilibres multiples: comment les économies émergentes ont-elles réussi à échapper au piège du sous-développement, Revue d'économie du développement, vol.14, pp.5-44, 2006.

A. Berthou and L. Fontagné, The Euro and the Intensive and Extensive Margins of Trade: Evidence from French Firm Level Data, 2008.

R. Bista, Reconciling the WTO effects on trade at the extensive and intensive margins, International Economic Journal, vol.29, issue.2, pp.231-257, 2015.

L. Blanco and R. Grier, Natural resource dependence and the accumulation of physical and human capital in Latin America, Resources Policy, vol.37, issue.3, pp.281-295, 2012.

R. Blundell and S. Bond, Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models, Journal of econometrics, vol.87, issue.1, pp.115-143, 1998.

S. Bond, A. Hoeffler, and J. Temple, GMM estimation of empirical growth models, 2001.

A. Boos and K. Holm-müller, The relationship between the resource curse and genuine savings: Empirical evidence, Journal of Sustainable Development, vol.6, issue.6, p.59, 2013.

F. Bornhorst, S. Gupta, and J. Thornton, Natural resource endowments and the domestic revenue effort, European Journal of Political Economy, vol.25, issue.4, pp.439-446, 2009.

A. D. Boschini, J. Pettersson, and J. Roine, Resource curse or not: A question of appropriability, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, vol.109, issue.3, pp.593-617, 2007.

A. Boschini, J. Pettersson, and J. Roine, The resource curse and its potential reversal, World Development, vol.43, pp.19-41, 2013.

J. R. Boyce and J. H. Emery, Is a negative correlation between resource abundance and growth sufficient evidence that there is a "resource curse, Resources Policy, vol.36, pp.1-13, 2011.

J. C. Brada and J. A. Méndez, Economic integration among developed, developing and centrally planned economies: A comparative analysis, The Review of Economics and Statistics, pp.549-556, 1985.

C. N. Brunnschweiler and E. H. Bulte, The resource curse revisited and revised: A tale of paradoxes and red herrings, Journal of environmental economics and management, vol.55, issue.3, pp.248-264, 2008.

E. H. Bulte, R. Damania, and R. T. Deacon, Resource intensity, institutions, and development, World development, vol.33, issue.7, pp.1029-1044, 2005.

M. Burger, F. Van-oort, and G. J. Linders, On the specification of the gravity model of trade: zeros, excess zeros and zero-inflated estimation, Spatial Economic Analysis, vol.4, issue.2, pp.167-190, 2009.

M. Bussière, J. Fidrmuc, and B. Schnatz, Trade integration of Central and Eastern European countries: Lessons from a gravity model, 2005.

N. F. Campos, Context is everything: measuring institutional change in transition economies, 2000.

F. Canova, Testing for convergence clubs in income per capita: a predictive density approach, International Economic Review, vol.45, issue.1, pp.49-77, 2004.

R. J. Carbaugh, International Economics, 2007.

C. Carrère, Revisiting the effects of regional trade agreements on trade flows with proper specification of the gravity model, European Economic Review, vol.50, issue.2, pp.223-247, 2006.

C. Carrère, UEMOA, CEMAC : quelle performance en matière de commerce ? Revue d'économie du développement, vol.21, pp.33-60, 2013.

C. Carrère, J. De-melo, and J. Wilson, The Distance Puzzle and Low-Income Countries: An Update, Journal of Economic Surveys, vol.27, issue.4, pp.717-742, 2013.

C. Carrère, J. Gourdon, and M. Olarreaga, Regional integration and natural resources: Who benefits? Evidence from MENA, 2012.

D. Cass, Optimum growth in an aggregative model of capital accumulation. The Review of economic studies, vol.32, pp.233-240, 1965.

D. Cass, Optimum growth in an aggregative model of capital accumulation. The Review of economic studies, vol.32, pp.233-240, 1965.

T. V. Cavalcanti, K. Mohaddes, and M. Raissi, Growth, development and natural resources: New evidence using a heterogeneous panel analysis, The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, vol.51, issue.4, pp.305-318, 2011.

P. L. Chang and M. J. Lee, The WTO trade effect, Journal of International Economics, vol.85, issue.1, pp.53-71, 2011.

R. Chang, L. Kaltani, and N. V. Loayza, Openness can be good for growth: The role of policy complementarities, Journal of Development Economics, vol.90, pp.33-49, 2009.

I. H. Cheng and H. J. Wall, Controlling for heterogeneity in gravity models of trade and integration, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol.87, issue.1, pp.49-63, 2005.

J. Cheong, D. W. Kwak, and K. K. Tang, The WTO puzzle, multilateral resistance terms and multicollinearity, Applied Economics Letters, vol.21, issue.13, pp.928-933, 2014.

R. Cherif, The Dutch disease and the technological gap, Journal of Development Economics, vol.101, pp.248-255, 2013.

C. Clague, Institutions and economic development: Growth and governance in lessdeveloped and post-socialist countries (No. 338.9 I59i), 1997.

T. Cliff, Exploratory data analysis in business and economics: An introduction using SPSS. Stata, and Excel, p.215, 2014.

D. T. Coe and E. Helpman, International r&d spillovers, European economic review, vol.39, issue.5, pp.859-887, 1995.

P. Collier and A. J. Venables, Trade and economic performance: Does Africa's fragmentation matter?, 2008.

D. Cooke, Openness and inflation, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, vol.42, pp.267-287, 2010.

C. A. Cooper and B. F. Massell, A new look at customs union theory. The economic journal, vol.75, pp.742-747, 1965.

W. M. Corden, Booming sector and Dutch disease economics: survey and consolidation, oxford economic Papers, vol.36, issue.3, pp.359-380, 1984.

W. M. Corden and J. P. Neary, Booming sector and de-industrialisation in a small open economy. The economic journal, vol.92, pp.825-848, 1982.

G. Davis, The resource curse: Assessing the empirical evidence. Colorado: Colorado School of Mines, 2006.

G. A. Davis, Natural resources: Neither curse nor destiny, Resources Policy, vol.33, issue.4, 2008.

G. A. Davis, Trade in mineral resources (No. ERSD-2010-01). WTO Staff Working Paper, 2010.

A. Deardorff, Determinants of Bilateral Trade: Does Gravity Work in a Neoclassical World, NBER Chapters, pp.7-32, 1998.

S. Dietz, E. Neumayer, and I. De-soysa, Corruption, the resource curse and genuine saving, Environment and Development Economics, vol.12, issue.1, pp.33-53, 2007.

S. Ding and J. Knight, Why has China grown so fast? The role of physical and human capital formation, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, vol.73, issue.2, pp.141-174, 2011.

D. Dollar, Outward-oriented developing economies really do grow more rapidly: evidence from 95 LDCs, 1976-1985. Economic development and cultural change, vol.40, pp.523-544, 1992.

D. Dollar and A. Kraay, Growth is Good for the Poor, Journal of economic growth, vol.7, issue.3, pp.195-225, 2002.

D. Dollar and A. Kraay, Trade. Growth and Poverty. Economic Journal, vol.114, pp.22-49, 2004.

K. Du, Econometric convergence test and club clustering using Stata, Stata Journal, vol.17, issue.4, pp.882-900, 2017.

S. N. Durlauf and P. A. Johnson, Multiple regimes and cross-country growth behaviour, Journal of applied econometrics, vol.10, issue.4, pp.365-384, 1995.

S. N. Durlauf, P. A. Johnson, and J. R. Temple, Growth econometrics. Handbook of economic growth, vol.1, pp.555-677, 2005.

P. Dutt, I. Mihov, and T. Van-zandt, The effect of WTO on the extensive and the intensive margins of trade, Journal of international Economics, vol.91, issue.2, pp.204-219, 2013.

J. Eaton and S. Kortum, Technology, geography, and trade, Econometrica, vol.70, issue.5, pp.1741-1779, 2002.

S. Edwards, Trade orientation, distortions and growth in developing countries, Journal of Development Economics, vol.39, pp.31-57, 1992.

S. Edwards, Openness, productivity and growth: What do we really know?, The Economic Journal, vol.108, pp.383-398, 1998.

T. S. Eicher and C. Henn, In search of WTO trade effects: Preferential trade agreements promote trade strongly, but unevenly, Journal of International Economics, vol.83, issue.2, pp.137-153, 2011.

S. El-naggar, The Economic Union Between Developing Countries, p.10, 1964.

M. Endoh, Trade creation and trade diversion in the EEC, the LAFTA and the CMEA: 1960-1994, Applied Economics, vol.31, issue.2, pp.207-216, 1999.

H. J. Engelbrecht and C. Pearce, The GATT/WTO has promoted trade, but only in capital-intensive commodities!, Applied Economics, vol.39, issue.12, pp.1573-1581, 2007.

S. J. Evenett and W. Keller, On theories explaining the success of the gravity equation, Journal of political economy, vol.110, issue.2, pp.281-316, 2002.

T. Fally, Structural gravity and fixed effects, Journal of International Economics, vol.97, issue.1, pp.76-85, 2015.

R. Feenstra, Advanced International Trade : Theory and Evidence, 2004.

G. J. Felbermayr and W. Kohler, Exploring the intensive and extensive margins of world trade, Review of World Economics, vol.142, issue.4, pp.642-674, 2006.

G. Felbermayr and W. Kohler, Modelling the extensive margin of world trade: new evidence on GATT and WTO membership, The World Economy, vol.33, issue.11, pp.1430-1469, 2010.

C. Filippini and V. Molini, The determinants of East Asian trade flows: a gravity equation approach, Journal of asian Economics, vol.14, issue.5, pp.695-711, 2003.

M. Fouquin, R. O. Langhammer, and R. Schweickert, Natural Resource Abundance and its Impact on Regional Integration. Curse or Blessing, ELSNIT/Fundacao Getulio Vargas Conference in, 2006.

J. Frankel, Regional Trading Blocs in the World Economic System, 1997.

J. A. Frankel and D. Romer, Does trade cause growth?, American Economic Review, vol.89, pp.379-399, 1999.

J. A. Frankel, E. Stein, and S. J. Wei, Regional trading blocs in the world economic system, 1997.

J. Frankel, E. Stein, and S. J. Wei, Trading blocs and the Americas: The natural, the unnatural, and the super-natural, Journal of development economics, vol.47, issue.1, pp.61-95, 1995.

C. Freund and B. Bolaky, Trade, regulations, and income, Journal of Development Economics, vol.87, pp.309-321, 2008.

O. Galor, Convergence? Inference from theoretical models, The Economic Journal, vol.106, pp.1056-1069, 1996.

S. Gil, R. Llorca, and J. A. Martínez-serrano, Assessing the enlargement and deepening of the European Union, World Economy, vol.31, issue.9, pp.1253-1272, 2008.

S. Gil-pareja, R. Llorca-vivero, and J. A. Martínez-serrano, Trade effects of monetary agreements: evidence for OECD countries, European Economic Review, vol.52, issue.4, pp.733-755, 2008.

R. Glick and A. K. Rose, Does a currency union affect trade? The time-series evidence, European Economic Review, vol.46, issue.6, pp.1125-1151, 2002.

J. H. Grant and K. A. Boys, Agricultural trade and the GATT/WTO: does membership make a difference?, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol.94, issue.1, pp.1-24, 2011.

D. Greenaway and C. Milner, South-South trade: theory, evidence, and policy. The World Bank Research Observer, vol.5, pp.47-68, 1990.

G. M. Grossman and E. Helpman, Quality ladders in the theory of growth. The Review of economic studies, vol.58, pp.43-61, 1991.

I. Guetat, The effects of corruption on growth performance of the MENA countries, Journal of Economics and Finance, vol.30, issue.2, pp.208-221, 2006.

I. Guetat and F. Serranito, Income convergence within the MENA countries: A panel unit root approach, The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, vol.46, issue.5, pp.685-706, 2007.

T. Gylfason, Natural resources, education, and economic development, European economic review, vol.45, issue.4-6, pp.847-859, 2001.

T. Gylfason and G. Zoega, Natural resources and economic growth: The role of investment, World Economy, vol.29, issue.8, pp.1091-1115, 2006.

T. Gylfason, T. T. Herbertsson, and G. Zoega, A mixed blessing: natural resources and economic growth, Macroeconomic dynamics, vol.3, issue.2, pp.204-225, 1999.

B. E. Hansen, Sample splitting and threshold estimation, Econometrica, vol.68, issue.3, pp.575-603, 2000.

A. Harrison, Openness and growth: A time-series, cross-country analysis for developing countries, Journal of development Economics, vol.48, issue.2, pp.419-447, 1996.

R. Haussmann, J. Hwang, and D. Rodrik, What you export matters, Journal of Economic Growth, vol.12, pp.1-25, 2007.

K. Head and T. Mayer, Gravity equations: Workhorse, toolkit, and cookbook, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00973067

, In Handbook of international economics, vol.4, pp.131-195

K. Head and T. Mayer, Gravity equations: Workhorse, toolkit, and cookbook, Handbook of international economics, vol.4, pp.131-195, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00973067

U. Heimenz and R. J. Langhammer, Regional integration among developing countries: Opportunities, obstacles, and options, p.232, 1990.

E. Helpman and P. R. Krugman, Market structure and foreign trade: Increasing returns, imperfect competition, and the international economy, 1985.

E. Helpman, M. Melitz, and Y. Rubinstein, Estimating trade flows: Trading partners and trading volumes. The quarterly journal of economics, vol.123, pp.441-487, 2008.

W. J. Henisz, The institutional environment for economic growth, Economics & Politics, vol.12, issue.1, pp.1-31, 2000.

B. Herz and M. Wagner, , 2011.

B. Herzl and M. Wagner, The "Real" Impact of GATT/WTO-A Generalized Approach, World Economy, vol.34, issue.6, pp.1014-1041, 2011.

H. C. Hillmann, Review of The theory of customs unions, International Affairs, issue.4, p.32, 1956.

D. Holtz-eakin, W. Newey, and H. S. Rosen, Estimating vector autoregressions with panel data, Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, pp.1371-1395, 1988.

P. Howitt and D. Mayer-foulkes, R&D, implementation and stagnation: A Schumpeterian theory of convergence clubs (No. w9104), National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002.

A. Inotai, Regional integration among developing countries, revisited, vol.643, 1991.

A. Inotai, Interrelations between subregional co-operation and EU enlargement, 1997.

, Macroeconomic policy frameworks for resource-rich developing countries, pp.527-554, 2007.

D. A. Irwin and M. Terviö, Does trade raise income?: Evidence from the twentieth century, Journal of International Economics, vol.58, issue.1, pp.1-18, 2002.

J. Isham, The Social Foundations of Poor Economic Growth in Resource-Rich Countries. Resource abundance and economic development, p.76, 2001.

J. Isham, M. Woolcock, L. Pritchett, and G. Busby, The varieties of resource experience: natural resource export structures and the political economy of economic growth, The World Bank Economic Review, vol.19, issue.2, pp.141-174, 2005.

N. Islam, Growth empirics: A panel data approach, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.110, issue.4, pp.1127-1170, 1995.

N. Islam, What have we learnt from the convergence debate, Journal of Economic Surveys, vol.17, pp.309-362, 2003.

. Itc, Facilitating Trade in ECOWAS: Insights from the ITC Business Surveys on Non-Tariff Measures, 2016.

J. Samimi, A. Ghaderi, S. Hosseinzadeh, R. Nademi, and Y. , Openness and inflation: New empirical panel data evidence, Economics Letters, vol.117, pp.573-577, 2012.

A. James, The resource curse: A statistical mirage?, Journal of Development Economics, vol.114, pp.55-63, 2015.

D. Kim, Trade, growth and income, The Journal of International Trade and Economic Development, vol.20, pp.677-709, 2011.

D. Kim and S. Lin, Trade and growth at different stages of economic development, Journal of Development Studies, vol.45, pp.1211-1224, 2009.

D. Kim, S. Lin, and Y. B. Suen, Nonlinearity between trade openness and economic development, Review of Development Economics, vol.15, pp.279-292, 2011.

D. Kim, S. Lin, and Y. B. Suen, The simultaneous evolution of economic growth, financial development and trade openness, The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, vol.21, pp.513-537, 2012.

M. H. Kim, Does the WTO promote trade? Further evidence, The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, vol.19, issue.3, pp.421-437, 2010.

S. Knack and P. Keefer, Institutions and economic performance: cross-country tests using alternative institutional measures, Economics & Politics, vol.7, issue.3, pp.207-227, 1995.

S. Knack and P. Keefer, Does social capital have an economic payoff? A crosscountry investigation, The Quarterly journal of economics, vol.112, issue.4, pp.1251-1288, 1997.

S. Knack and P. Keefer, Why don't poor countries catch up? A cross-national test of an institutional explanation, Economic inquiry, vol.35, issue.3, pp.590-602, 1997.

T. Kohl, The WTO's effect on trade: What you give is what you get, pp.459-493, 2017.

T. Kohl and S. Trojanowska, Heterogeneous trade agreements, WTO membership and international trade: an analysis using matching econometrics, Applied Economics, vol.47, issue.33, pp.3499-3509, 2015.

T. C. Koopmans, On the Concept of Optimal Economic Growth. The Economic Approach to Development Planning, 1965.

P. Krugman, The narrow moving band, the Dutch disease, and the competitive consequences of Mrs. Thatcher: Notes on trade in the presence of dynamic scale economies, Journal of development Economics, vol.27, issue.1-2, pp.41-55, 1987.

P. Krugman, The move toward free trade zones, Economic Review, vol.76, issue.6, p.5, 1991.

M. Larch, J. Wanner, Y. Yotov, and T. Zylkin, The currency union effect: A PPML re-assessment with high-dimensional fixed effects, 2017.

E. E. Leamer, Sources of international comparative advantage: Theory and evidence, 1984.

D. Lederman and W. F. Maloney, Neither curse nor destiny: Introduction to natural resources and development, Natural Resources, vol.1, pp.1-396, 2007.

D. Lederman and . Maloney, Natural resources, neither curse nor destiny, 2006.

D. Lederman and L. C. Xu, Comparative advantage and trade intensity: Are traditional endowments destiny, Natural Resources: Neither Curse nor Destiny, pp.289-322, 2007.

H. Y. Lee, L. A. Ricci, and R. Rigobon, Once again, is openness good for growth?, Journal of Development Economics, vol.75, issue.2, pp.451-472, 2004.

J. W. Lee and I. Park, Free Trade Areas in East Asia: Discriminatory or Nondiscriminatory?, World Economy, vol.28, issue.1, pp.21-48, 2005.

J. W. Lee and P. Swagel, Trade barriers and trade flows across countries and industries, Review of Economics and Statistics, vol.79, issue.3, pp.372-382, 1997.

J. W. Lee, I. Park, and K. Shin, Proliferating regional trade arrangements: Why and whither?, World Economy, issue.12, pp.1525-1557, 2008.

R. Lipsey, The theory of customs unions, trade diversion and welfare, Economica, vol.24, pp.40-46, 1957.

R. G. Lipsey, The theory of customs unions: A general survey. The economic journal, vol.70, pp.496-513, 1960.

X. Liu, GATT/WTO promotes trade strongly: Sample selection and model specification, Review of international Economics, vol.17, issue.3, pp.428-446, 2009.

R. E. Lucas, , 1988.

C. S. Magee, Endogenous preferential trade agreements: An empirical analysis, Contributions in Economic Analysis & Policy, vol.2, issue.1, 2003.

C. S. Magee, New measures of trade creation and trade diversion, Journal of International Economics, vol.75, issue.2, pp.349-362, 2008.

S. Makdisi, Z. Fattah, and I. Limam, , 2006.

N. G. Mankiw, D. Romer, and D. N. Weil, A contribution to the empirics of economic growth. The quarterly journal of economics, vol.107, pp.407-437, 1992.

O. Manzano and R. Rigobon, Resource curse or debt overhang? (No. w8390), 2001.

V. Martin and G. Vazquez, Club convergence in Latin America, The BE Journal of Macroeconomics, vol.15, issue.2, pp.791-820, 2015.

W. Martin and C. S. Pham, Estimating the gravity model when zero trade flows are frequent and economically determined, 2015.

I. Martínez-zarzoso, N. L. Felicitas, and N. Horsewood, Are regional trading agreements beneficial?: Static and dynamic panel gravity models, The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, vol.20, issue.1, pp.46-65, 2009.

E. Matsen and R. Torvik, Optimal dutch disease, Journal of Development Economics, vol.78, issue.2, pp.494-515, 2005.

K. Matsuyama, Agricultural productivity, comparative advantage, and economic growth, Journal of economic theory, vol.58, issue.2, pp.317-334, 1992.

A. Mattoo, D. Roy, and A. Subramanian, The Africa Growth and Opportunity Act and its Rules of Origin: Generosity Undermined?, World Economy, vol.26, issue.6, pp.829-851, 2003.

J. Meade, The theory of customs unions, 1955.

H. Mehlum, K. Moene, and R. Torvik, Institutions and the resource curse. The economic journal, vol.116, pp.1-20, 2006.

H. Mehlum, K. Moene, and R. Torvik, Cursed by resources or institutions?, World Economy, vol.29, issue.8, pp.1117-1131, 2006.

M. J. Melitz, The impact of trade on intra-industry reallocations and aggregate industry productivity, Econometrica, vol.71, issue.6, pp.1695-1725, 2003.

A. Micco, E. Stein, and G. Ordoñez, The currency union effect on trade: early evidence from, EMU. Economic policy, vol.18, issue.37, pp.315-356, 2003.

A. Micco, E. Stein, and G. Ordoñez, The currency union effect on trade: early evidence from, EMU. Economic policy, vol.18, issue.37, pp.315-356, 2003.

R. F. Mikesell, The theory of common markets as applied to regional arrangements among developing countries, International Trade Theory in a Developing World, 1965.

, The econometrics of panel data: Fundamentals and Recent Developments in Theory and Practice, 2008.

I. Mujahid and M. Kalkuhl, Do Trade Agreements Increase Food Trade, The World Economy, vol.39, issue.11, pp.1812-1833, 2016.

M. M. Nabli and M. R. Arezki, Natural resources, volatility, and inclusive growth: Perspectives from the Middle East and North Africa, pp.12-111, 2012.

D. Nicet-chenaf and E. Rougier, New exports matter: Discoveries, foreign direct investment and growth, an empirical assessment for Middle East and North African countries, The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, vol.20, issue.4, pp.507-533, 2011.

S. Nickell, Biases in dynamic models with fixed effects, Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, pp.1417-1426, 1981.

M. P. Olivero and Y. V. Yotov, Dynamic gravity: endogenous country size and asset accumulation, Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, vol.45, issue.1, pp.64-92, 2012.

R. B. Papalia and S. Bertarelli, Nonlinearities in economic growth and club convergence, Empirical Economics, vol.44, issue.3, pp.1171-1202, 2013.

E. Papyrakis and R. Gerlagh, The resource curse hypothesis and its transmission channels, Journal of Comparative Economics, vol.32, issue.1, pp.181-193, 2004.

E. Papyrakis and R. Gerlagh, Resource abundance and economic growth in the United States, European Economic Review, vol.51, issue.4, pp.1011-1039, 2007.

S. L. Parente and E. C. Prescott, Barriers to technology adoption and development, Journal of political Economy, vol.102, issue.2, pp.298-321, 1994.

N. Péridy and C. Bagoulla, Regional Integration and Real Convergence: Evidence from MENA Countries, Journal of Economic Integration, pp.80-114, 2012.

U. Petrunya and A. Ivashina, Institutional factors of economic development, 2010.

, Economic Theory, vol.4, pp.24-31

P. C. Phillips and D. Sul, Transition modeling and econometric convergence tests, 2007.

, Econometrica, vol.75, issue.6, pp.1771-1855

P. C. Phillips and D. Sul, Economic transition and growth, Journal of Applied Econometrics, vol.24, issue.7, pp.1153-1185, 2009.

D. Quah, Galton's fallacy and tests of the convergence hypothesis, The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, pp.427-443, 1993.

D. Quah, Empirics for growth and distribution: Stratification, polarization, and convergence clubs, Journal of Economic Growth, vol.2, pp.27-59, 1997.

D. T. Quah, Empirics for economic growth and convergence, European economic review, vol.40, issue.6, pp.1353-1375, 1996.

R. G. Rajan and A. Subramanian, Aid, Dutch disease, and manufacturing growth, Journal of Development Economics, vol.94, issue.1, pp.106-118, 2011.

A. N. Rambaldi, G. Hall, and R. P. Brown, Re-testing the resource curse hypothesis using panel data and an improved measure of resource intensity, Queensland: International Association of Agricultural Economists, 2006.

F. Rassekh, Is international trade more beneficial to lower income economies? An empirical inquiry, Review of Development Economics, vol.11, pp.159-169, 2007.

O. Raveh, Dutch Disease, factor mobility, and the Alberta Effect: the case of federations, Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, vol.46, issue.4, pp.1317-1350, 2013.

S. Rey, Real and nominal convergence amongst MENA countries, MPRA Paper, vol.30206, 2005.

R. Baldwin and &. Taglioni, Gravity for Dummies and Dummies for Gravity Equations, NBER Working Papers 12516, 2006.

R. Rigobon and D. Rodrik, Rule of law, democracy, openness, and income: Estimating the interrelationships, The Economics of Transition, vol.13, pp.533-564, 2005.

L. A. Rivera-batiz and P. M. Romer, Economic integration and endogenous growth, 1991.

, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.106, issue.2, pp.531-555

F. Rodriguez and D. Rodrik, Trade policy and economic growth: a skeptic's guide to the cross-national evidence, NBER macroeconomics annual, vol.15, pp.261-325, 2000.

D. Rodrik, Institutions for high-quality growth: what they are and how to acquire them, Studies in comparative international development, vol.35, issue.3, pp.3-31, 2000.

D. Rodrik, A. Subramanian, and F. Trebbi, , 2004.

D. C. Rodrik, Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance, 1990.

, Increasing returns and long-run growth, Journal of political economy, vol.94, issue.5, pp.1002-1037, 1986.

P. M. Romer, The origins of endogenous growth, Journal of Economic perspectives, vol.8, issue.1, pp.3-22, 1994.

D. Roodman, How to do xtabond2: an introduction to 'difference'and 'system, GMM in STATA, 2006.

D. Roodman, A note on the theme of too many instruments, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and statistics, vol.71, issue.1, pp.135-158, 2009.

A. K. Rose, One money, one market: the effect of common currencies on trade, pp.8-45, 2000.

A. K. Rose, Do we really know that the WTO increases trade, American Economic Review, vol.94, issue.1, pp.98-114, 2004.

P. R. Rosenbaum, Observational studies, Observational studies, pp.1-17, 2002.

J. Roy, Is the WTO mystery really solved?, Economics Letters, vol.113, issue.2, pp.127-130, 2011.

F. Rueda-junquera, European integration model: Lessons for the Central American common market, Jean Monnet/Robert Shuman Paper Series, vol.6, issue.4, 2006.

J. D. Sachs and A. M. Warner, Natural resource abundance and economic growth (No. w5398), National Bureau of Economic Research, 1995.

J. D. Sachs and A. M. Warner, , 2001.

X. X. Sala-i-martin, The classical approach to convergence analysis. The economic journal, pp.1019-1036, 1996.

R. Shams, Regional integration in developing countries :some lessons based on case studies, HWWA Discussion Paper, issue.251, 2003.

R. Shams, Regional integration in developing countries : some lessons based on case studies, HWWA Discussion Paper, issue.251, 2003.

S. Shao and L. Yang, Natural resource dependence, human capital accumulation, and economic growth: A combined explanation for the resource curse and the resource blessing, Energy Policy, vol.74, pp.632-642, 2014.

J. M. Silva, S. Tenreyro, and F. Windmeijer, Testing competing models for nonnegative data with many zeros, Journal of Econometric Methods, vol.4, issue.1, pp.29-46, 2015.

J. S. Silva and S. Tenreyro, The log of gravity, The Review of Economics and statistics, vol.88, issue.4, pp.641-658, 2006.

J. S. Silva and S. Tenreyro, On the existence of the maximum likelihood estimates in Poisson regression, Economics Letters, vol.107, issue.2, pp.310-312, 2010.

I. Soloaga and L. A. Winters, Regionalism in the nineties: What effect on trade, 2001.

, The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, vol.12, issue.1, pp.1-29

R. M. Solow, A contribution to the theory of economic growth. The quarterly journal of economics, vol.70, pp.65-94, 1956.

J. P. Stijns, Natural resource abundance and economic growth revisited. Resources policy, vol.30, pp.107-130, 2005.

A. Subramanian and S. J. Wei, The WTO promotes trade, strongly but unevenly, Journal of international Economics, vol.72, issue.1, pp.151-175, 2007.

L. Sun and M. R. Reed, Impacts of free trade agreements on agricultural trade creation and trade diversion, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol.92, issue.5, pp.1351-1363, 2010.

L. Tamilina and N. Tamilina, Heterogeneity in Institutional Effects on Economic Growth: Theory and Empirical Evidence, European Journal of Comparative Economics, vol.11, issue.2, pp.205-249, 2014.

J. Temple, The new growth evidence, Journal of economic Literature, vol.37, issue.1, pp.112-156, 1999.

X. Tian, X. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and X. Yu, Regional income inequality in China revisited: A perspective from club convergence, Economic Modelling, vol.56, pp.50-58, 2016.

J. Tinbergen, Shaping the world economy: suggestions for an international trade policy, 1962.

M. Tomz, J. L. Goldstein, and D. Rivers, Do we really know that the WTO increases trade? Comment, American Economic Review, vol.97, issue.5, pp.2005-2018, 2007.

R. Torvik, Learning by doing and the Dutch disease, European economic review, vol.45, issue.2, pp.285-306, 2001.

R. Torvik, Natural resources, rent seeking and welfare, Journal of development economics, vol.67, issue.2, pp.455-470, 2002.

R. Torvik, Why do some resource-abundant countries succeed while others do not, 2009.

, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, vol.25, issue.2, pp.241-256

D. Trefler, Trade liberalization and the theory of endogenous protection: an econometric study of US import policy, Journal of political Economy, vol.101, issue.1, pp.138-160, 1993.

D. Trefler, The case of the missing trade and other mysteries, The American Economic Review, pp.1029-1046, 1995.

D. Trefler, The long and short of the Canada-US free trade agreement, American Economic Review, vol.94, issue.4, pp.870-895, 2004.

J. Trotignon, Does regional integration promote the multilateralization of trade flows? A gravity model using panel data, Journal of Economic Integration, pp.223-251, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00550464

B. Ula?an, Trade openness and economic growth: Panel evidence, Applied Economics Letters, vol.22, pp.163-167, 2015.

E. Valeriani and S. Peluso, The impact of institutional quality on economic growth and development: An empirical study, Economics and Information Technology, vol.1, issue.6, pp.1-25, 2011.

A. Vamvakidis, How robust is the growth-openness connection: Historical evidence, Journal of Economic Growth, vol.7, pp.57-80, 2002.

F. Van-der-ploeg and A. J. Venables, Absorbing a windfall of foreign exchange: Dutch disease dynamics, Journal of Development Economics, vol.103, pp.229-243, 2013.

S. Van-wijnbergen, TheDutch Disease': a disease after all, The Economic Journal, vol.94, issue.373, pp.41-55, 1984.

A. Venables, Economic integration in remote resource rich regions, 2009.

A. Venables, Economic integration in remote resource-rich regions, pp.187-207, 2011.

. Oxford,

T. Venables and P. Collier, Trade and Economic Performance: Does Africa's Fragmentation Matter, Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics, 2008.

J. Viner, The Customs Union Issue, New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Viner, J, 1950.

K. Von-lyncker and R. Thoennessen, Regional club convergence in the EU: evidence from a panel data analysis, Empirical Economics, vol.52, issue.2, pp.525-553, 2017.

R. Wacziarg, Measuring the dynamic gains from trade. The World Bank, 1999.

R. Wacziarg and H. K. Welch, Trade Liberalization and Economic Growth: New Evidence, vol.22, pp.187-231, 2003.

C. Wang, X. Liu, and Y. Wei, Impact of openness on growth in different country groups, The World Economy, vol.27, pp.567-585, 2004.

S. J. Wei, Intra-national versus international trade: how stubborn are nations in global integration? (No. w5531), National Bureau of Economic Research, 1996.

D. N. Weil, Economic growth, 2008.

J. Westerlund and F. Wilhelmsson, Estimating the gravity model without gravity using panel data, Applied Economics, vol.43, issue.6, pp.641-649, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00582188

F. Windmeijer, A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient twostep GMM estimators, Journal of econometrics, vol.126, issue.1, pp.25-51, 2005.

H. Wolde and M. R. Bhattacharya, Constraints on Trade in the MENA Region (No. 10-31), 2010.

A. Wood and K. Berge, Exporting manufactures: human resources, natural resources, and trade policy, The Journal of Development Studies, vol.34, issue.1, pp.35-59, 1997.

W. Bank, Middle East and North Africa Economic Developments and Prospects, World Trade Report. World Trade Organization, 2008.

, Trade in natural resources, Geneva World Trade Report, 2010.

H. Yanikkaya, Trade openness and economic growth: a cross-country empirical investigation, Journal of Development economics, vol.72, issue.1, pp.57-89, 2003.

Y. V. Yotov, R. Piermartini, J. A. Monteiro, and M. Larch, An advanced guide to trade policy analysis: The structural gravity model, 2016.

A. Young, Learning by doing and the dynamic effects of international trade, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.106, issue.2, pp.369-405, 1991.