Les compétences spécifiques territoriales : lien invisible entre les entreprises, les actifs et le territoire

Abstract : Spatial mobility is put forward as a solution to the economic changes impacting rural and urban areas (their economic sectors, companies and ultimately, their workers). On the one hand, the need to resolve the problem of unemployment and to meet the labour needs of businesses are two drivers of this mobility, and on the other hand, the viscosity factors of the labor market and in particular territorial anchorage situations are regarded as anomalies. The aim of public policy management is then to solve these anomalies by implementing measures promoting mobility, essentially providing workers with the most general skills, with the idea of securing career paths through greater mobility.In this context, the integration or “anchoring” of workers in a particular area or “territory” is difficult to understand and the specification of skills linked to an area is considered a strategic mistake. However, it turns out that despite the measures in favor of an increasing mobility, many workers still prefer to stay where they are rather than leave their area, preferring the risk of suffering a period of unemployment or even accepting a job that does not match their qualifications. In addition to this, companies seem to look for specific skills such as trust or reputation, which are related to a form of territorial integration.The aim of this thesis is to shed light on this apparent contradiction, assuming that this situation of territorial integration maintains itself for positive and valid economic and social reasons. Indeed, by combining the specificity of the skills observed and the territorial aspect of the economy, we are seeking to identify skills that are specific to an area, which, in our opinion, explain the relationships between companies, their human resources and the area itself.In this thesis, we will try to establish empirically the existence of these specifically “territorial” skills, which are have been foreseen in the literature.As part of regional economics, this thesis is based on the theory of labor market segmentation and we have borrowed one of its special characteristics, namely the skill segmentation described in Becker's human capital theory (1964).Specification by human resources is not an anomaly but the outcome of a market functioning “normally”. Thus, in general, the specification of workers and by extension of their skills can be explained as a source of competitive advantage for companies according to resource-based theory (Penrose, 1959).This study is based on three levels of data : a database of 213 Territorial Employment Initiatives from the Ministry of Labor, an analysis of the area of Figeac, from a observing-participating position, and a series of interviews carried out in the areas of Langres and South Alsace.In terms of results, we implemented and tested an identification method that revealed three specific territorial competences: the competence of anticipation of the territory's market, the relational competence specific to the territory and the competence of detection and use of local skills.Each of these skills is a combination of basic individual skills which enable the development of an economic activity specific to the company and connected to the area it is in. Alongside these skills, we have also identified in these various areas the collective competence of territorial development.These skills were analyzed in the context of their territories. Thus, in terms of local public policy, this research will make it possible to better specify the territories for companies and local players. It will also provide an answer in terms of securing career paths.
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Truong Giang Pham. Les compétences spécifiques territoriales : lien invisible entre les entreprises, les actifs et le territoire. Economies et finances. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018UBFCG005⟩. ⟨tel-02148509⟩

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