Le régime juridique des biens cultuels : vers une nouvelle approche du droit des cultes en France ?

Abstract : Cultual goods, and more generally the cults themselves, have undergone many changes in their legal system. To be interested in the legal regime of the cultual goods is necessarily to study the system of cults, as a whole. Starting from the management of the material goods of the different cults, we propose an analysis of the current law of religions. In 1905, the law on the separation of churches and the state was passed. An eminently political law, it aims to secularize public institutions and proposes a new material organization for the different cults present on the national territory. In order to replace the former public establishments of the cult concordats, cult associations, private, are set up: they are intended to represent the cult and to manage its material goods. The difficulty arose with the refusal of the Catholic Church to constitute such associations, forcing the legislator to accompany this law of separation by a body of law, premise of future state accommodations in this area. The law of 1905 was not applied in its entirety since its promulgation and the body of law it engendered resulted in a multitude of compromises to two cults in particular: the Catholic Church and Islam. Today, these two religions are hardly subject to the provisions of the 1905 law, from a material, organizational or financial point of view. The absence of unity of the law of cults in France (even within the law of 1905, in Alsace-Moselle and in the DOM-TOM) is not likely to answer the questions raised by the religious metamorphosis that occurs France. It may have been time to make this juridical regime of cults evolve again, adapting it more to the current religious context.
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Nicolas Deiller. Le régime juridique des biens cultuels : vers une nouvelle approche du droit des cultes en France ?. Droit. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018UBFCF007⟩. ⟨tel-02148466⟩

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