P. C. Brookes, The use of microbial parameters in monitoring soil pollution by heavy metals, Biol. Fertil. Soils, vol.19, pp.269-279, 1995.

I. Razo, L. Carrizales, J. Castro, F. Díaz-barriga, and M. Monroy, Arsenic and Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil, Water and Sediments in a Semi-Arid Climate Mining Area in Mexico, Water. Air. Soil Pollut, vol.152, pp.129-152, 2004.

S. Abraham and X. Li, A Cost-effective Wireless Sensor Network System for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring Applications, Procedia Comput. Sci, vol.34, pp.165-171, 2014.

J. Hromadka, Multi-parameter measurements using optical fibre long period gratings for indoor air quality monitoring, Sens. Actuators B Chem, vol.244, pp.217-225, 2017.

J. Kim, &. Sung-kwon-jung, and . Kim, Wireless Monitoring of Indoor Air Quality by a Sensor Network, Indoor Built Environ, vol.19, pp.145-150, 2010.

B. O'flynn, SmartCoast: A Wireless Sensor Network for Water Quality Monitoring, 32nd IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN 2007, pp.815-816, 2007.

, Air pollution by ozone in Europe in summer, European Environment Agency Available, p.1, 2001.

C. Davidson, Marine Notice : Carbon Dioxide : Health Hazard, Aust. Marit. Saf. Auth, 2003.

J. Rudge and R. Gilchrist, Excess winter morbidity among older people at risk of cold homes: a population-based study in a London borough, J. Public Health, vol.27, pp.353-358, 2005.

, Making the Case: the impact of heat on health -now and in the future -Heatwave_plan_2013_-_Making_the_case_Accessible_updated, 2013.

A. V. Arundel, E. M. Sterling, J. H. Biggin, and T. D. Sterling, Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments, Environ. Health Perspect, vol.65, pp.351-361, 1986.

T. Husman, Health effects of indoor-air microorganisms, Scand. J. Work. Environ. Health, vol.22, pp.5-13, 1996.

C. Yu and D. Crump, A review of the emission of VOCs from polymeric materials used in buildings, Build. Environ, vol.33, pp.357-374, 1998.

J. Liu, Developed urban air quality monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks, 2011 Fifth International Conference on Sensing Technology, pp.549-554, 2011.

O. A. Postolache, J. M. Pereira, and P. M. Girao, Smart Sensors Network for Air Quality Monitoring Applications, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas, vol.58, pp.3253-3262, 2009.

J. Kwon, G. Ahn, G. Kim, J. C. Kim, and H. Kim, A study on NDIR-based CO2 sensor to apply remote air quality monitoring system, 2009.

P. Völgyesi, A. Nádas, X. Koutsoukos, and Á. Lédeczi, Air Quality Monitoring with SensorMap, 2008 International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (ipsn 2008, pp.529-530, 2008.

B. Ivanov, O. Zhelondz, L. Borodulkin, and H. Ruser, Distributed smart sensor system for indoor climate monitoring, pp.10-11, 2017.

P. Jiang, H. Xia, Z. He, and Z. Wang, Design of a Water Environment Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks, Sensors, vol.9, pp.6411-6434, 2009.

W. M. Grayman, R. A. Deininger, and R. M. Males, Design of Early Warning and Predictive Sourcewater Monitoring Systems, 2001.

F. Shaun, Robust multi-parameter sensing probe for water monitoring based on ALD-coated metallic micro-patterns, 2016 IEEE 11th Annual International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (NEMS), pp.342-345, 2016.

M. V. Storey, B. Van-der-gaag, and B. P. Burns, Advances in on-line drinking water quality monitoring and early warning systems, Water Res, vol.45, pp.741-747, 2011.

, Spectrometer Probes. Available at, p.24, 2018.

I. Ondavia and . Results, Decisive Actions. Available, p.24, 2018.

, KAPTA TM 2000-AC2 In-line chlorine sensor | Veolia Water Technologies


, Water Optics Technology. Available, p.24, 2018.

Y. D. Winncy and S. W. Yelich, Resistive and Capacitive Based Sensing Technologies, Int. Freq. Sens. Assoc. Publ, vol.90, pp.100-116, 2008.

J. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Shin, and Y. Yoon, A study on the fabrication of an RTD (resistance temperature detector) by using Pt thin film, Korean J. Chem. Eng, vol.18, pp.61-66, 2001.

V. Mosser, J. Suski, J. Goss, and E. Obermeier, Piezoresistive pressure sensors based on polycrystalline silicon, Sens. Actuators Phys, vol.28, pp.113-132, 1991.

W. P. Eaton and J. H. Smith, Micromachined pressure sensors: review and recent developments, Smart Mater. Struct, vol.6, p.530, 1997.

C. Pramanik, H. Saha, and U. Gangopadhyay, Design optimization of a high performance silicon MEMS piezoresistive pressure sensor for biomedical applications, J. Micromechanics Microengineering, vol.16, p.2060, 2006.

B. Kingdom, What is non-revenue water? How can we reduce it for better water service?, The Water Blog, p.5, 2016.

I. Grundfoss and . From, The advantages of water pressure management, 2015.

E. Landeros, R. Pe´-rez, A. Peralta, and G. Cembrano, Detection using pressure sensors and mathematical models Water Loss, 2009.

J. C. Sanchez, Semiconductor strain gauge, 1963.

R. Nave, . Resistance, and . Resistivity, Available at, p.26, 1998.

, YSI Model 3200 Conductance, Resistance, Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids and Temperature Instrument, 1999.

, Monitoring and Assessing Water Quality -Volunteer Monitoring | Monitoring & Assessment | US EPA, p.18, 2018.

R. L. Miller, W. L. Bradford, and N. E. Peters, Specific conductance; theoretical considerations and application to analytical quality control, P.O, 1988.

, Electrical Conductivity, USGS Water Science School. Available, p.26, 2018.

T. S. Light, S. Licht, A. C. Bevilacqua, and K. R. Morash, The Fundamental Conductivity and Resistivity of Water, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett, vol.8, pp.16-19, 2005.

R. G. Wetzel, Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems, 2001.

, Properties of seawater, 2018.

A. D. Eaton, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 1998.

. Swrcb, Electrical Conductivity/Salinity Fact Sheet, The Clean Water Team Guidance Compendium for Watershed Monitoring and Assessment State Water Resources Control Board, 2002.

, Water quality indicators, p.26, 2018.

M. Pumera, Contactless conductivity detection for microfluidics: Designs and applications, Talanta, vol.74, pp.358-364, 2007.

C. Huck, Capacitively coupled electrolyte-conductivity sensor based on high-k material of barium strontium titanate, Sens. Actuators B Chem, vol.198, pp.102-109, 2014.

I. Martinez and . Thermometry, , 1995.

N. O. and A. A. , How far does light travel in the ocean? Available at, p.18, 2018.

T. Properties, Accessed: 18th March 2018) 56. Thermal pollution -The Encyclopedia of Earth, USGS Water Science School. Available, p.18, 2018.

M. Hayashi, Temperature-electrical conductivity relation of water for environmental monitoring and geophysical data inversion, Environ. Monit. Assess, vol.96, pp.119-128, 2004.

, Temperature Effects on Solubility. Available at

P. Bhadja and A. Vaghela, Effect of temperature on the toxicity of some metals to Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822), Int. J. Adv. Life Sci, issue.6, pp.252-254, 2013.

A. Toxicity and . Changes, Available at, 2018.

, Final Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria For Ammonia-Freshwater, Federal Register, 2013.

, Measuring ORP on YSI 6-Series Sondes: Tips, Cautions and Limitations, 2005.

, USGS Water Science School. Available, 2018.

, LabBench Activity Key Concepts II: Temperature and Metabolic Activity. Pearson Available

D. Santo, V. Bennett, and W. A. , Effect of rapid temperature change on resting routine metabolic rates of two benthic elasmobranchs, Fish Physiol. Biochem, vol.37, pp.929-934, 2011.

R. Rusby, The Beginner's Guide to Temperature Measurement, 2012.

. Kelvin and . Wikipedia, , 2018.

. Fahrenheit and . Wikipedia, , 2018.

T. J. Quinn and J. P. Compton, The foundations of thermometry, IOPscience, vol.38, pp.151-239, 1975.

. The, Y. Basic-qualities--yin, and G. Style, , p.24, 2018.

. Galen and . Wikipedia, , 2018.

. Thermometer and . Wikipedia, , 2018.

P. R. Childs, J. R. Greenwood, and C. A. Long, Review of temperature measurement, Rev. Sci. Instrum, vol.71, pp.2959-2978, 2000.

B. C. Kaanta, High Sensitivity Micro-Thermal Conductivity Detector for Gas Chromatography, 2009 IEEE 22nd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, pp.264-267, 2009.

T. K. Hsiai, Micro Sensors: Linking Real-Time Oscillatory Shear Stress with Vascular Inflammatory Responses, Ann. Biomed. Eng, vol.32, pp.189-201, 2004.

F. Mailly, Anemometer with hot platinum thin film, Sens. Actuators Phys, vol.94, pp.32-38, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00323760

N. T. Nguyen, Micromachined flow sensors-a review, Flow Meas. Instrum, vol.8, pp.7-16, 1997.

J. Honschoten and . Van, Application of a microflown as a low-cost level sensor, J. Micromechanics Microengineering, vol.10, p.250, 2000.

D. Dittmann, R. Ahrens, Z. Rummler, K. Schlote-holubek, W. K. Schomburg et al., Cost Flow Transducer Fabricated with the Amanda-Process. in Transducers '01 Eurosensors XV, pp.1444-1447, 2001.

K. G. Kreider and F. Dimeo, Platinum/palladium thin-film thermocouples for temperature measurements on silicon wafers, Sens. Actuators Phys, vol.69, pp.46-52, 1998.

J. T. Kuo, L. Yu, and . Meng, E. Micromachined Thermal Flow Sensors-A Review. Micromachines, vol.3, pp.550-573, 2012.

E. F. Meng and .. , MEMS technology and devices for a micro fluid dosing system, 2003.

F. Peeters, M. Peetermans, and L. Indesteege, Temperature Sensors, Modern Snsor Handbook, pp.347-391, 2007.

J. Stephenson and R. , Mechanical Variables Measurement -Thermal, Measurement, Instrumentation and Handbook

D. R. White, The status of Johnson noise thermometry, Metrologia, vol.33, p.325, 1996.

J. B. Johnson, Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors, Phys. Rev, vol.32, pp.97-109, 1928.

H. Nyquist, Thermal Agitation of Electric Charge in Conductors, Phys. Rev, vol.32, pp.110-113, 1928.

Y. Qian, Application of RTD Sensor in the Real Time Measurement and Wireless Transmission, 2014 Fourth International Conference on Instrumentation and Measurement, pp.658-662, 2014.

R. P. Bhatta, High temperature thermal conductivity of platinum microwire by 3? method, Rev. Sci. Instrum, vol.81, p.114904, 2010.

, Thermal conductivity detector (TCD), p.7, 2018.

E. Lussac, R. Barattin, P. Cardinael, and V. Agasse, Review on Micro-Gas Analyzer Systems: Feasibility, Separations and Applications, Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem, vol.46, pp.455-468, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01929316

K. Chen and Y. Wu, Thermal analysis and simulation of the microchannel flow in miniature thermal conductivity detectors, Sens. Actuators Phys, vol.79, pp.211-218, 2000.

N. Alfino, M. Amidei, A. Alomairah, . Types, and . Flowmeters,

M. Cottrell, Fluid Flow Instrumentation, 2007.

M. Faraday, Our Time -BBC, p.21, 2018.

H. Fujita, A decade of MEMS and its future. in, Tenth Annual International Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 1997. MEMS '97, Proceedings, 1997.

J. T. Kuo, L. Chang, P. Li, T. Hoang, and E. Meng, A microfluidic platform with integrated flow sensing for focal chemical stimulation of cells and tissue, Sens. Actuators B Chem, vol.152, pp.267-276, 2011.

S. Billat, Monolithic integration of micro-channel on disposable flow sensors for medical applications, Sens. Actuators Phys, vol.145, pp.66-74, 2008.

S. Silvestri and E. Schena, Micromachined Flow Sensors in Biomedical Applications

, Micromachines, vol.3, pp.225-243, 2012.

G. Soundararajan, MEMS shear stress sensors for microcirculation, Sens. Actuators Phys, vol.118, pp.25-32, 2005.

B. C. Kaanta, H. Chen, and X. Zhang, Novel device for calibration-free flow rate measurements in micro gas chromatographic systems, J. Micromechanics Microengineering, vol.20, p.95034, 2010.

S. Zampolli, Selectivity enhancement of metal oxide gas sensors using a micromachined gas chromatographic column, Sens. Actuators B Chem, vol.105, pp.400-406, 2005.

K. H. Bartlett, M. Martinez, and J. Bert, Modeling of Occupant-Generated CO2 Dynamics in Naturally Ventilated Classrooms, J. Occup. Environ. Hyg, vol.1, pp.139-148, 2004.

Y. Zhu, B. Chen, M. Qin, and Q. A. Huang, 2-D Micromachined Thermal Wind Sensors #x2014;A Review, IEEE Internet Things J, vol.1, pp.216-232, 2014.
DOI : 10.1109/jiot.2014.2319296

G. Shen, M. Qin, Q. Huang, H. Zhang, and J. Wu, A FCOB packaged thermal wind sensor with compensation, Microsyst. Technol, vol.16, pp.511-518, 2010.

P. Bruschi and M. Piotto, Design Issues for Low Power Integrated Thermal Flow Sensors with UltraWide Dynamic Range and Low Insertion Loss, vol.3, pp.295-314, 2012.

M. Dijkstra, Miniaturized thermal flow sensor with planar-integrated sensor structures on semicircular surface channels, Sens. Actuators Phys, vol.143, pp.1-6, 2008.

S. Wu, Q. Lin, Y. Yuen, and Y. Tai, MEMS flow sensors for nano-fluidic applications

, Actuators Phys, vol.89, pp.152-158, 2001.

C. Jack, F. Zhifang, Z. Jun, and E. Chang, Two-Dimensional Micromachined Flow Sensor Array for Fluid Mechanics Studies, J. Aerosp. Eng, vol.16, pp.85-97, 2003.

N. T. Nguyen and W. Dötzel, Asymmetrical locations of heaters and sensors relative to each other using heater arrays: a novel method for designing multi-range electrocaloric mass-flow sensors

, Actuators Phys, vol.62, pp.506-512, 1997.

C. Li, P. Wu, J. Han, and C. H. Ahn, A flexible polymer tube lab-chip integrated with microsensors for smart microcatheter, Biomed. Microdevices, vol.10, pp.671-679, 2008.

H. Ernst, A. Jachimowicz, and G. A. Urban, High resolution flow characterization in Bio-MEMS

, Sens. Actuators Phys, vol.100, pp.54-62, 2002.

A. S. Cubukcu, E. Zernickel, U. Buerklin, and G. A. Urban, A 2D thermal flow sensor with submW power consumption, Sens. Actuators Phys, vol.163, pp.449-456, 2010.

F. Kohl, A micromachined flow sensor for liquid and gaseous fluids, Sens. Actuators Phys, vol.41, pp.293-299, 1994.

N. Nguyen, A. H. Meng, J. Black, and R. M. White, Integrated flow sensor for in situ measurement and control of acoustic streaming in flexural plate wave micropumps, Sens. Actuators Phys, vol.79, pp.115-121, 2000.

A. Talic, MEMS Flow Sensors Based on Self-Heated aGe-Thermistors in a Wheatstone Bridge, Sensors, vol.15, pp.10004-10025, 2015.

H. Berthet, J. Jundt, J. Durivault, B. Mercier, and D. Angelescu, Time-of-flight thermal flowrate sensor for lab-on-chip applications, Lab. Chip, vol.11, pp.215-223, 2011.

Z. Tan, Characteristics of on-wall in-tube flexible thermal flow sensor under radially asymmetric flow condition, Sens. Actuators Phys, vol.138, pp.87-96, 2007.

Z. Tan, Experimental and theoretical study of an on-wall in-tube flexible thermal sensor

, Micromechanics Microengineering, vol.17, p.679, 2007.

W. C. Shin and R. S. Besser, A micromachined thin-film gas flow sensor for microchemical reactors

, J. Micromechanics Microengineering, vol.16, p.731, 2006.

A. Alfadhel, B. Li, A. Zaher, O. Yassine, and J. Kosel, A magnetic nanocomposite for biomimetic flow sensing, Lab. Chip, vol.14, pp.4362-4369, 2014.

L. Chang, P. Li, L. Zhao, T. Hoang, and E. Meng, Integrated flow sensing for focal biochemical stimulation, 3rd IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems, pp.921-926, 2008.

C. Y. Lee, A Smart Flow Sensor for Flow Direction Measurement, Adv. Mater. Res. 47, vol.50, pp.189-192, 2008.

L. V. King, On the convection of heat from small cylinders in a stream of fluid: Determination of the convection constants of small platinum wires, with applications to hot-wire anemometry, Proc R Soc Lond A, vol.90, pp.563-570, 1914.

N. Chiu, T. Hsiao, and C. Lin, Low power consumption design of micro-machined thermal sensor for portable spirometer, Tamkang J. Sci. Eng, vol.8, pp.225-230, 2005.

R. Buchner, C. Sosna, M. Maiwald, W. Benecke, and W. Lang, A high-temperature thermopile fabrication process for thermal flow sensors, Sens. Actuators Phys, pp.262-266, 2006.

S. Cho, Y. Joshi, V. Sundaram, Y. Sato, and R. Tummala, Comparison of thermal performance between glass and silicon interposers, 2013 IEEE 63rd Electronic Components and Technology Conference, pp.1480-1487, 2013.

F. J. Shaun, E. Nefzaoui, F. Marty, W. Cesar, and T. Bourouina, Micro-fabricated thermal flowrate sensors: the substrate material impact on the device performance and power consumption
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01865930

F. Shaun, Robust Multi-Parameter Sensing Probe for Water Monitoring Based on ALDCoated Metallic Micro-patterns" Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (NEMS), IEEE 11th Annual International Conference, 2016.

F. Shaun, On the Co-Integration of a Thermo-resistive Flow Rate Sensor in a Multi-Parameter Sensing Chip for Water Network Monitoring" Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS), 2017.

F. Shaun, Design of micro-fabricated thermal 26 flow-rate sensor for water network monitoring, Symposium on Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of 27 MEMS/MOEMS (DTIP) 2017 Symposium on Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS 28 (DTIP), pp.1-4, 2017.

F. Shaun, Energy efficient micro-machined thermal flow-rate sensor based on transient operation mode, Symposium on Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS (DTIP), 2018.

F. Shaun, F. Nefzaoui, M. F. , C. W. Bourouina, and T. , Micro-fabricated thermal flow-rate sensors for water networks monitoring: the impact of the substrate material on the device performance and power consumption, J. of Microsys. Technol, 2018.

F. Shaun, S. Sarkar, F. Marty, P. Poulichet, C. W. et al., Sensitivity optimization of micro-machined thermo-resistive flow-rate sensors on silicon substrates

M. Microengineering, , vol.28, p.74002, 2018.

F. Shaun, Carbon Nanotubes Meet MEMS: Co-integration Enables 9 Physical and Chemical Sensors on a Single Chip's IoT Node for Water Network Monitoring