Faire face ou vivre avec les catastrophes ? Capacités d'adaptation et capabilités dans les trajectoires de résilience individuelles et territoriales au sein de l'espace Caraïbe

Abstract : The notion of cope with, often translated in french by the expression "faire face", is usually used to define and explain the vulnerability and resilience of societies. This concept is made effective through coping capacities. International prevention and management frameworks emphasize the need to develop these capacities at the community and territorial scales by preparing individuals to "cope" in order to reduce their vulnerability and make them resilient.However the notion of cope with has never been clearly described and defined in scientific literature. Based on this observation, this thesis aims at understanding the existing links between vulnerability, cope with and resilience. To this end, the research is based on the study of territorial and individual trajectories of resilience in the Caribbean context. Three study areas which has suffered major crises, have been chosen : Martinique, Guadeloupe and Haiti. The investigation was based on the collection of life stories, interviews and questionnaires, participant and non-participant observation and archival work.This thesis demonstrates several results. First, territorial resilience trajectories do not coincide with individual resilience trajectories. The resilience of the territory does not necessarily imply the resilience of inhabitants and inversely. The thesis here specifies the different states that territorial and individual resilience can take on and goes back over the notions of crisis and disaster. Then, the notion of cope with can be grasped thanks to the answers that people implement in the face of disturbances. These answers are the subject of a typology, then reinterpreted thanks to the notions of adjustment and adaptation, which makes it possible to return to the translation of the cope with. Finally, the thesis demonstrates that there is no linear causality between the implementation of individuals' coping capacities, observed responses and resilience. The capability approach developed by A. Sen is then applied to the area of risks and disasters. It shows the importance of individual choices and freedom, and to recontextualize the notion of cope with. This thesis proposes then to replace the notion of coping capacities by the concept of coping capabilities, to understand how each individual "cope with", in a precise situation, on a given territory and in a particular temporality.
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Fanny Bénitez. Faire face ou vivre avec les catastrophes ? Capacités d'adaptation et capabilités dans les trajectoires de résilience individuelles et territoriales au sein de l'espace Caraïbe. Géographie. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MON30065⟩. ⟨tel-02147507⟩

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