Imageur de Fresnel UV : préparation d'une mission probatoire sur la Station spatiale internationale

Abstract : This Ph.D. thesis work was made between 2014 and 2017, in order to prepare a probatory mission of the Fresnel Imager for astronomical observations in the ultraviolet (UV) domain. The Fresnel Imager is a concept of diffractive telescope created and developed mainly by Laurent Koechlin since 2004. Its primary optics is a Fresnel grid: a very light weight optics (in the range of kilograms) using the principle of Fresnel zone plates. Fresnel arrays are adapted to large apertures in space. In order to prove the feasibility of a probatory mission on the International Space Station (ISS), the instrument has first to prove its performances on the ground. The initial goal of my thesis was to conceive a new prototype adapted to UV. This required a new configuration of the entire imaging system, as well as the realization of new optics, particularly those correcting the chromatism induced by that new kind of diffractive imaging. This chromatic corrector is a concave blazed Fresnel mirror, which has been successfully realized for the first time. The second goal was to improve the design of the Fresnel grid, in order to enhance its high contrast performances while preserving its diffraction-limited resolution. This was obtained by modifying the setup which holds the rings in place, as well as by the application of an apodization adapted to this particular optics. The new Fresnel grid in the prototype is 65 mm x 65 mm only, but its point spread function reaches a dynamic range of 10^6 at 15 resels (resolution element) from center. This will be further improved when a slightly larger array planned for the probatory mission on the ISS. Later, space missions could feature Fresnel grids several meters in size, yielding diffraction-limited images in the UV.
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Wilhem Roux. Imageur de Fresnel UV : préparation d'une mission probatoire sur la Station spatiale internationale. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30136⟩. ⟨tel-02147345⟩

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