Influence de la trajectoire de vie du propriétaire dirigeant sur la représentation de son rapport à l'entreprise et de sa relation à la réussite

Abstract : Research in the entrepreneurial field has been conducted with the ambition of discovering the determinants of entrepreneurial success (Schmitt, 2015). In the champion of the science of management, the representation to the previous of Cognitivists. This orientation is definitive as the building construction.The psychodynamic approach proposes a different meaning of representations. It postulates that are psychic constructions on a relation to the represented object. In this way, the influence of the life trajectory of the actors is fully recognized.This research highlights the impact of the subjective experiences of entrepreneurs on the birth of the desire for creation and autonomy. Thus, we were led to identify with models, then we would have differentiated to finally be able to individuate.Nevertheless, in order to succeed in entrepreneurial action, the owner-managers must become aware of this desire for creation and autonomy. This research shows that such an awareness marks the entry of the owner-managers into the phenomenon of entrepreneurial emergence. The use of the psychodynamic approach makes it possible to shed different light on the successive stages of entrepreneurial emergence. In this orientation, it is considered similar to a symbolic pregnancy. The owner-manager becomes aware of his desire to undertake a phase of incorporation. Then in a retention phase, he is led to develop a vision and analyze the resources at his disposal. Finally, the expulsion phase corresponds to the symbolic birth of an organization or a business project. The owner-manager then attempts to materialize his business ideal which has been brought closer to the pygmalion complex. This well-known mechanism of psychoanalytic theory and particularly at work in artists' populations especially among sculptors.Verstraete (2003) has highlighted the existence of a relationship between the entrepreneur and the company within the entrepreneurial phenomenon. This research confirms this relationship and the contribution of psychoanalytic theory provides explanations of its nature. By fostering the desire to create an ideal business, the owner-manager is also led to project his own desires for success. This projection of the entrepreneur's ambitions on his company favors its development. This mechanism is similar to the pygmalion effect discovered by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968), which postulates that the success of children depends on the desire of their parents to project on them.This conjunction of the dual desire of the owner to give life to its creation and to promote its chances of success has been named the phenomenon of entrepreneurial pygmalion. This phenomenon influences representations of the relationship to the success of owner-managers in the sense that it expresses the ambitions projected on the organization. The company then becomes a means to materialize their personal aspirations. It is for this reason that they have a singular relationship with this creation.Finally the extreme involvement of the owner-manager in his business sometimes leads him to abandon his personal life. These works demonstrate their ambition to find a balance between the life of the company and their personal life.
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François Renon. Influence de la trajectoire de vie du propriétaire dirigeant sur la représentation de son rapport à l'entreprise et de sa relation à la réussite. Gestion et management. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0026⟩. ⟨tel-02147048⟩

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