Approche épidémiologique des choix alimentaires lors de l'approvisionnement et de la préparation des repas : déterminants et associations avec l'alimentation et le tatut pondéral

Abstract : Nowadays, obesity is a global societal problem. In developed countries, food abundance has contributed to the development of an "obesogenic" environment by encouraging overconsumption. Thus, promoting healthy food choices is a major public health issue. The objective of this thesis was to provide an epidemiological approach to food choices during grocery shopping and home meal preparation of food. This work was performed on the NutriNet-Santé population, which is a large web-based prospective observational cohort of French adults.During grocery shopping, front-of-pack nutrition labels were evaluated as potential tools to guide consumers in their choices. Four logos were compared: the Guideline Daily Amounts, the Multiple Traffic Light, the simple Pick the Tick label and 5-color nutrition label. Among these labels, the 5-color nutrition label was perceived as the easiest to identify, and that requiring the least effort to understand. It was the most effective in increasing the capacity of individuals to rank three products based on their nutritional quality. Finally, in a situation of simulated online grocery shopping, this label was the one that allowed the most important increase in the nutritional quality of the shopping cart as compared to a situation without label.During home meal preparation, a first objective was to uncover all the determinants involved in food choices, since this topic remains little studied in the literature. Five motives of dish choice were identified: healthy diet, constraints, pleasure, specific diets and organization. Giving importance to a healthy diet was associated with a better nutritional quality of food, and to lower odds of being overweight. The importance attached to specific diet motive was also associated with better diet quality food but lower odds of being overweight. Despite significant associations for other motives, the observed effects were relatively small. These results underscore the importance of promoting healthy food choices when preparing meals.Planning meal, in other words deciding ahead the foods that will be eaten in the next few days, was also evaluated. Overall, individuals who planned their meals were more likely to comply with nutritional guidelines and had a more varied diet, although the results in terms of energy intake and food groups showed limited differences. They were also less likely to be obese (and overweight in women).All these results suggest the interest of providing tools (nutrition labels, tools providing assistance for decision-making when preparing meals, as well as for meal planning) to guide individuals in their food choices and thereby improving the quality of their diet.
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Pauline Ducrot. Approche épidémiologique des choix alimentaires lors de l'approvisionnement et de la préparation des repas : déterminants et associations avec l'alimentation et le tatut pondéral. Santé. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCD074⟩. ⟨tel-02146398⟩

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