Etudes de cartographie altimétrique pour l'observation de la dynamique méso-échelle dans le contexte SWOT : application à la mer Méditerranée occidentale

Abstract : The main objectif of this thesis is to evaluate the contribution of a dynamic interpolation method to improve the representation of small scale ocean processes in altimetric maps. The current resolution of these maps constructed by a statistical optimal interpolation technique, is well adapted to the study of the mesoscale variability but does not allow us to observe structures of sizes smaller than 150-200km, largely due to the spatio-temporal sampling of the data. The dynamic interpolation method is based on a one-and-a-half layer quasi-geostrophic (QG) propagation model, aims to recreate part of the temporal evolution of small oceanic structures using the local dynamics. In this study, we apply this method to the western Mediterranean Sea. First we evaluate the QG propagator's capacity to represent the dynamics in this region. We then use this propagator to perform the dynamic interpolation in a spatially idealized case, comparing the reconstructed fields with a fine-resolution numerical model. The results show a general improvement compared to a linear interpolation over a period of 5-10 days. There is spatial and temporal disparity in the performance of the method, with a greater improvement for the regions of high variability and during the winter period. We explored ways of complexifying the QG propagator to better represent the dynamics of the region, influenced by the strong local atmospheric forcing, the geometry of the bassin and its bathymetry. In a second study, we evaluated the contribution of this dynamical interpolation method for mapping real alongtrack altimetric data. For this study, covariance structures derived from the QG model's evolution are integrated into an optimal interpolation scheme. The resulting dynamical interpolated maps are compared to the current altimetric maps. This study, which participates in the preparation of the exploitation of the future high resolution data of the SWOT mission, demonstrates the effectiveness of a relatively simple model to improve the resolution of the altimetric maps. Nevertheless, all of these results reveal the difficulty to optimally parameterize this mapping method to caracterize the dynamics in a region which presents a strong spatial and temporal variability. This work also highlights the need to better exploit the independant data to rigorously evaluate the improvement at small scales, which have significant impacts on the dynamics of the mesoscale, particularly on energy transfers within the ocean and on physico-biological interactions.
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Marine Rogé. Etudes de cartographie altimétrique pour l'observation de la dynamique méso-échelle dans le contexte SWOT : application à la mer Méditerranée occidentale. Océan, Atmosphère. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30078⟩. ⟨tel-02146019⟩

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