Caractérisation de la flore (fongique, bactérienne, acariens) des logements par QPCR et impact sanitaire

Abstract : Objectives The aim of the study is to characterize by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) fungal, bacterial environment as well as exposure to other allergenic organisms (mites and pets). This characterization of dwellings aims to better understand the interactions between the different micro-organisms of the indoor environment and their relation to allergie diseases. The secondary aim is the use of other QPCRs in other health circumstances (infections, ABPA) te better characterize the impact of environmental microorganisms. The EBRA-ELFE study The ELFE study, which includes 18,319 children, is the first French cohort to study the development of children from birth to majority in a multi-disciplinary approach. A nested study EBRA (MicroBiological Environment and Allergie Risk) focuses on the microbiological compositior of dust in children's rooms. The electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling and analysis mode has been validated to guarantee an acceptable system (in terms of cost and constraints for the participants) and to optimize the quality of QPCR quantification. A panel of 10 targets (molds, mites, bacteria) selected for their allergenic, taxie, infectious or potentially protective effect against allergie diseases was initially used. Thus during the first sampling at birth of children in 2011, 3217 EDC were quantified by QPCR. The concentrations of six molds (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum), three groups of bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Mycobacteria and Streptomyces) and one mite (Dermatophagoides pteronissynus) of the immediate environment of the new have been obtained. These data made it possible to identify six different dwelling profiles A second panel of 10 targets was chosen and documented. It includes "dog" and "cat" targets te propose a complete test including the main allergens of the dwellings. The collaboration with thE ELFE group continues and a project for a second 5-year sampling campaign is set up.The use of QPCR for the use of QPCR other risk situations The QPCR is a standardized tool, reproducible, allowing quantification and its applications are multiple. During this work, it was used to characterize other risk situations: presence of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris in the aerosols of composting stations, presence of Aspergillus fumigatus in environments that could receive immunocompromised patients , the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA or mucorales in the serum of immunocompromised patients. Conclusion Tools developed and the results obtained during the study represent a step forward for a better knowledge of the microbial envrionnement and will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of development of allergie diseases
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Emeline Scherer. Caractérisation de la flore (fongique, bactérienne, acariens) des logements par QPCR et impact sanitaire. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Franche-Comté, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015BESA3021⟩. ⟨tel-02146014⟩

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