Étude de SLY et de la régulation (épi)génétique des chromosomes sexuels pendant la spermiogenèse

Abstract : Sex chromosomes in mammals are globally repressed during meiosis (MSCI ) and then partially reactivated in round spermatids prior to the transcriptional activity shut down occurring in spermatozoa. Whereas the MSCI is essential for spermatogenesis, the proportion of reactivated genes and the underlying mechanisms of the sex chromosomes regulation after meiosis is still a conundrum. In mice, deletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome (MSYq-) are responsible for the overexpression of more than hundred sex chromosome genes associated with epigenetic modifications that leads to impaired sperm functions and abnormal chromatin compaction. Sly is one of the five multicopy genes present on MSYq and Sly deficiency (Sly-KD) has recently been showed to be at the basis of the gene deregulation and sperm defects obrserved in MSYq- mice. Additionally, partially deleted MSYq males and Sly-KD mice produce offspring with a sex ratio distortion in favor of females; these observations suggest a postmeiotic intragenomic conflict involving Sly and its homolog Slx, an X-linked multicopy gene. What role for SLY during spermiogenesis? In order to decipher SLY mechanisms of action, we sought to study SLY target genes and partners. We showed that SLY interacts with TBL1XR1, an inherent member of the repressive Ncor complex. Meanwhile, we found that SLY is enriched at the promoter of spermatid expressed genes encoded both by sex chromosomes and autosomes. Additionally, SLY controls genes involved in genetic and chromatin regulation (e.g, H2A variants and DOT1L). We also observed a significant reduction of H3K79me2 levels associated with abnormal histone retention in Sly-KD spermatozoa. We propose that DOT1L, the principal H3K79 methyltransferase identified to date, is essential for chromatin remodeling in spermatids. What are the molecular mechanisms involved in the ongoing intragenomic conflict between SLY and SLX? We showed by co-immunoprecipitation that SSTY, another Y-linked multicopy gene, preferentially interacts with SLX in vivo. Furthermore, both SLX and SLY interact with SPIN1, a homolog of SSTY which is able to recognize H3K4me3. The interactions between SLX/SLY and SPIN1/SSTY could be part of the intragenomic conflict. By re-evaluating several RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq datasets we demonstrated that MSCI does not persist beyond meiosis. We proposed that the intragenomic conflict between SLY and SLX constitutes a considerable selection pressure, partly responsible for the specific epigenetic landscape of sex chromosomes and their enrichment in multicopy genes expressed after meiosis. In conclusion, our work allowed a better understanding of the mode of action of SLX/SLY and the identification of new factors involved in the (epi)genetic regulation during spermiogenesis that are conserved in humans.
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Charlotte Moretti. Étude de SLY et de la régulation (épi)génétique des chromosomes sexuels pendant la spermiogenèse. Génétique. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB113⟩. ⟨tel-02146007⟩

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