Modélisation à bases physiques de l'hydrologie de l'Arve à Chamonix et application à la prévision des crues

Abstract : Natural hazards in mountain are subject to prevention measures, which often partly rely on a forecasting component. In some situations, forecasting these hazards and understanding their underlying physical processes is a major scientifical issue, considering the great complexity and the strong heterogeneity of these backgrounds. Knowing underlying mechanisms of flash-floods on little catchments with glacier cover, and the perspective to forecast be able to forecast it, is an example of these risks difficult to master. The diversity of contributions to river discharge, their individual complexity and the one of the way they interact, the strong spatio-temporal variability of meteorological conditions of mountain and long-terms modifications occuring due to climate change make that this phenomenon needs to be deeply studied within a plury- disciplinary work, going from terrain measurement to development of computationnal models taking into account the diversity of physical phenomenons relating to this risk. This thesis belongs to a research project conducted in collaboration with local authorities operating in the Chamonix Valley. The goal is to provide a scientific support to help managing this hazard. The role of this thesis in this research project is to develop, test and deploy an hydrologic model taking snow and ice into account. This model is intended to be used as a research tool among other research tools of this projects (terrain measurements for example) and also to be able to help forecasting floods, when being driven by forecast meteorological data. This thesis benefitted from the continuous development of new possibilities from physically-based simulation. We have used an energy-balance multi layer snowpack model that permits a detailled representation of glacier accumulation and melt, and snow-ice interaction. It was possible to perform a multi-criteria evaluation of the model, thanks to the numerous in-situ field measurements in the Arve valley, especially glaciers mass balance measurements. Finally, this model has been deployed and tested as a pre-operationnal forecast tool.
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Grégoire Lecourt. Modélisation à bases physiques de l'hydrologie de l'Arve à Chamonix et application à la prévision des crues. Hydrologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30134⟩. ⟨tel-02145983⟩

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