Rôle du traffic intracellulaire dans la signalisation et la réponse lymphocytaire T

Abstract : The immune response against a broad spectrum of pathogens or against tumor cells requires the CD4 + T lymphocytes activation. The triggering of T Cell Receptor (TCR) by peptide-MHC through antigen-presenting cells (APC) leads to numerous T-cell remodeling and the establishment of a specialized structure at the interface between the T lymphocyte and the APC: the immunological synapse. The synapse is the site of intense signaling events where various signaling molecules are recruited in order to amplify and diversify the signal initiated by the TCR. These signaling events are regulated by the transmembrane adapter LAT ("Linker for activation of T cells") which is present at the plasma membrane as well as in intracellular compartments. The intracellular fraction of LAT is recruited at the immune synapse and it is proposed that these vesicular compartments participate in T lymphocyte signaling. The objective of this thesis work was to determine the intracellular trafficking pathways required for the recruitment of the intracellular pool of LAT to the immunological synapse and understand the role of this transport in T cell activation and response. By silencing the expression of different intracellular transport molecules in Jurkat T cells or primary human CD4 + T lymphocytes, or by using Knock-Out (KO) mice, we have highlighted several trafficking pathways involved in the transport of LAT to the immune synapse. We have demonstrated that the recruitment of LAT to TCR activation sites requires a secretion pathway dependent on the vesicular SNARE protein VAMP7. Further analysis of the transport of LAT showed that LAT is present in recycling compartments whereas VAMP7 is mainly located in the Golgi apparatus. The study of the small GTPase Rab6 and the t-SNARE syntaxin-16 protein that are involved in the retrograde transport pathways between the recycling endosomes and the Golgi apparatus, demonstrated that this route of transport is required for the recruitment of LAT to the immunological synapse and for T lymphocyte response in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo as well. Finally, the role of intraflagellar transport protein IFT20, which has already been implicated in the transport of TCR, was analyzed in mice and also showed defects in LAT recruitment to synapse and T lymphocyte activation ex vivo and in vivo. Our results thus show that the regulation of intracellular transport plays a crucial role in T lymphocyte activation. We thus propose a model in which LAT is constitutively internalized from the plasma membrane and pursues a Golgi-dependent recycling pathway that contains the secretion machinery associated with VAMP7. This intracellular transport pathway would thus allow the polarized LAT re-secretion to the immunological synapse under activation conditions and a robust T lymphocyte response.
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Jean-Marie Carpier. Rôle du traffic intracellulaire dans la signalisation et la réponse lymphocytaire T. Immunologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB242⟩. ⟨tel-02145784⟩

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