Compréhension des mécanismes physiopathologiques des malformations du développement cortical associées à des mutations dans les gènes KIF2A et NEDD4L

Abstract : Malformations of cortical development (MCD) result from alterations in different stages of corticogenesis such as proliferation, migration and neuronal differentiation, and are generally associated with drug-resistant epilepsy and severe intellectual disabilities. The genetics causes of MCD remain largely unknown, we have thus performed the whole-exome sequencing of many patients with MCD and reported the identification of multiple pathogenic missense mutations in KIF2A and NEDD4L genes. Within the frame of my thesis project, we propose to focus on the cellular and neurodevelopmental consequences resulting from KIF2A and NEDD4L mutations shown to be involved in MCD. KIF2A is a member of the kinesin-13 family, which rather than regulating cargos transport along microtubules (MT), regulates MT dynamics by depolymerizing MTs. The in utero electroporation approach allowed us to highlight the crucial role of KIF2A in the regulation neurogenesis, neuronal migration and the neuronal positioning in the cortex. Particularly, our data show that the expression of the KIF2A mutants involved in MDC lead to an increase in the number of cells in proliferative state which is a consequence of a prolonged time spent in the cell cycle. Our first cellular data and during development show that the expression of pathogenic KIF2A mutations induce alterations in the mitotic spindle integrity, in the mitotic progression and also an abnormal localization of KIF2A in the primary cilium. NEDD4L encodes a member of the NEDD4 family of HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases known to regulate the turnover and function of a number of proteins involved in fundamental cellular pathways and processes. Firstly, cellular and expression data showed sensitivity of MCD-associated mutants to proteasome degradation. Moreover, the in utero electroporation approach showed that PNH-related mutants and excess wild-type NEDD4L affect neurogenesis, neuronal positioning and terminal translocation. Further investigations, including rapamycin-based experiments, found differential deregulation of pathways involved. Excess wild-type NEDD4L leads to disruption of Dab1 and mTORC1 pathways, while MCD-related mutations are associated with deregulation of mTORC1 and AKT activities. Altogether, these results reinforce the importance of MT-related proteins in cortical development describing the crucial role of KIF2A kinesin in mechanisms such as neuronal migration dynamics and neuronal progenitor’s cell cycle regulation. On the other hand, we also provide new data to better understand the critical role of NEDD4L in the regulation of mTOR pathways and their contributions in cortical development.
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Loïc Broix. Compréhension des mécanismes physiopathologiques des malformations du développement cortical associées à des mutations dans les gènes KIF2A et NEDD4L. Neurobiologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB103⟩. ⟨tel-02145762⟩

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