Rôle et régulation de l'autophagie dans les lymphomes anaplasiques à grandes cellules ALK positifs

Abstract : The ALK oncogene (Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase) is a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase implied in various cancers including Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas (ALCL), or some lung adenocarcinomas. The current operative treatment is standard chemotherapy, which is not optimal (30% of relapses, low quality of life). In this context, new specific ALK inhibitors such as Crizotinib have been developed, and have showed their efficiency in vitro, in vivo and in patients. However, the emergence of resistant mutations has been described. Thus, the identification of alternative therapies targeting new pathways appears as mandatory to counteract those resistances. In this context, autophagy, an intracellular catabolic lysosomal process, has been described as a new therapeutic target in the treatment of cancers resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The first aim of my project was to characterize the autophagic process in ALK+ ALCL, upon different treatments. We showed that (1) autophagy was activated in ALK+ ALCL cell lines in response to ALK inhibition (2) that this autophagy played a cytoprotective role in our model and (3) that treatment with chemotherapies did not trigger an autophagic response. In a second part of the project, we focused on the potential regulation of autophagy by microRNAs. We showed that several microRNAs including miR-7 were down-regulated upon Crizotinib treatment and that ectopic re-expression of this miR-7 potentiates the effects of Crizotinib by induction of cytotoxic autophagy in our model. We hypothesized that this switch in the role of autophagy from cytoprotection to cytotoxicity observed in our model, could be explained by the regulation of several protein targets of miR-7 such as Bcl-2 or c-Raf. Altogether, these results enable a better understanding of the role and regulation of autophagy induced upon ALK inhibition in ALCL, and could in the longer term, contribute to improvement of current therapies of cancers involving the ALK oncogene.
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Julie Frentzel. Rôle et régulation de l'autophagie dans les lymphomes anaplasiques à grandes cellules ALK positifs. Cancer. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016TOU30180⟩. ⟨tel-02145698⟩

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