Épidémiologie de l'asthme lié au travail : évaluation des expositions professionnelles et leurs associations avec la maladie

Abstract : Currently, asthma is the first occupational respiratory disease. The use of disinfectants and cleaning products has been identified as an emerging risk factor for work-related asthma, especially in the healthcare industry. However, identifying the specific products at risk for asthma remains challenging, partly because assessment of occupational exposure to disinfectants/cleaning products is difficult in epidemiological studies and needs improvement. Moreover, taking into account possible healthy worker effect (HWE) is essential in work-related asthma study.The aims of the thesis were to improve the methods for assessment of occupational exposure to disinfectants/cleaning products by developing new methods; and to study the association between occupational exposure to disinfectants/cleaning products and asthma control taking into account a possible HWE.First, job-exposure (JEM) and job-task-exposure matrices (JTEM) have been created using data from a random sample of women without asthma from a large prospective cohort of US nurses (NHSII: Nurse’s Health Study II). Second a new assessment method using a smartphone application with a barcode scanner and a database was designed to evaluate occupational exposure to disinfectants and cleaning products. The study of the association between occupational exposure to disinfectants and cleaning products and asthma control has used data from the French Epidemiological study on the genetics and environment of asthma. Longitudinal data were available on occupational history and asthma phenotypes. To control for a possible HWE, a marginal structural model (MSM) was used.For the first part, JEM and JTEM exposure estimates were heterogeneous in most nursing jobs, except in emergency room and education/administration. The JTEM may provide more accurate estimates than the JEM, especially for nursing jobs with heterogeneous tasks. Through the smartphone application, 126 products were registered for 14 hospital workers of the pilot study. Information on components was available for all products in the database. The method developed is feasible and applicable to larger epidemiological studies. In the etiological part, a HWE was observed in the study sample. Even after controlling for a HWE, results did not allow concluding on the association between occupational exposures and control of asthma.
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Catherine Quinot. Épidémiologie de l'asthme lié au travail : évaluation des expositions professionnelles et leurs associations avec la maladie. Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLV079⟩. ⟨tel-02145224⟩

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