Caractérisation de l'effet cytoprotecteur des cellules souches mésenchymateuses sur l'apoptose et sur les altérations phénotypiques des cellules épithèliales alvéolaires soumises à l'hypoxie

Abstract : Acute or chronic alveolar injuries provoke massive apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) that compromises an efficient repair of the alveolar epithelium and leads to lung diseases such as ARDS or IPF. These disorders are commonly associated with local alveolar hypoxia aggravating their progression through the stimulation of AEC apoptosis. Administration of allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to limit lung inflammation and fibrosis in murine models of alveolar injury, through a still poorly understood paracrine mechanism. In a first study, we showed that long term exposure of AEC in hypoxia leads to phenotypic alterations which looks like epithelio-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Co-culture with MSCs prevent hypoxia-induced EMT.In a second work, we studied whether MSC could protect AEC from hypoxia-induced apoptosis and the mechanisms involved. hMSC-conditioned media (hMSC-CM) significantly reduced hypoxia-induced apoptosis of AEC. Such a anti-apoptotic effect was also obtained with ROS scavenger N-acetylcystein or HIF1a inhibitor YC-1. hMSC-CM decreased the protein expression of HIF1α and HIF2α and of their pro-apoptotic target Bnip3 in hypoxic AEC. hMSC-CM also reduced ROS accumulation in hypoxic AEC by enhancing the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and prevented the induction of CHOP, a pro-apoptotic factor induced by ROS signaling. The paracrine effect of hMSC was partly dependent on KGF and HGF secretion. hMSC prevent via a paracrine effect hypoxia-induced apoptosis of AEC by modulating hypoxic and ROS signaling.These two studies show that MSCs exert cytoprotective effects in vitro against hypoxia-induced apoptosis and EMT in AEC
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Olivier Bernard. Caractérisation de l'effet cytoprotecteur des cellules souches mésenchymateuses sur l'apoptose et sur les altérations phénotypiques des cellules épithèliales alvéolaires soumises à l'hypoxie. Biologie moléculaire. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCD072⟩. ⟨tel-02144677⟩

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