Etude de la paroi intestinale dans un modèle murin d'interruption intestinale : rôles des cellules du SNE et des cellules neuroendocrines

Abstract : Aim of the studyIntestinal atresia is a rare congenital affection with postoperative motility disorders, leading sometimes to death. Previous related studies mainly focused on enteric nervous system (ENS) alterations as it was identified to cause abnormal peristalsis. The aim of the study was to expertise the underlying pathological conditions of intestinal atresia using a global approach, before focusing on ENS and neuroendocrine cells in order to precise the presumptive involvement of the different layers of the intestinal wall.MethodsPreliminary transcriptomic approach was elected to screen global gene expression involved in intestinal development and atresia-linked disorders in the rat model previously described by our team. Rat embryos were assigned to atretic group and controls embryos at different stages of development ED15, ED17, ED19 and ED21. Two successive intestine samples of 1 cm were harvested in the proximal segment and in the distal one. The pattern of gene expression was further assessed by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and RT-qPCR. Main resultsA physiological decrease in gene expression for enteric nervous system markers and an increase for neuroendocrine and epithelial system was observed on controls from stages ED15 to ED21. Regarding affected embryos, structural modifications concerned the proximal segment with increased muscular layer and a significant disruption including global accelerated maturation was observed in the proximal segment with increased gene expression of neuroendocrine system. Distal segment was comparable to controls for the two systems. Important modifications were noted concerning the epithelial system with consequent abnormalities of the gut barrier and anti infectious functions.ConclusionsFetal intestinal obstruction results in a disrupted gut development predominant in the proximal segment. The distal segment and the ENS were poorly concerned by theses changes. Neuroendocrine and epithelial cells underwent significant unexpected changes, supporting the evidence that ENS do not play an exclusive role in the pathways of intestinal motility disorders.
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Quentin Ballouhey. Etude de la paroi intestinale dans un modèle murin d'interruption intestinale : rôles des cellules du SNE et des cellules neuroendocrines. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIMO0011⟩. ⟨tel-02144320⟩

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