Crise de la symbolisation et Idéal du Moi dans la culture postmoderne : essai de psychanalyse pharmakologique

Abstract : The Lyotardian concept of "postmodernity" refers to the current crisis, namely a crisis of the "meta-narratives" organizing modernity, and the resulting social, epistemic and discursive order. Faced with the current hegemonic attempt of biomedicine and cognitivism, which propose a new scientific myth, that of transhumanism, and play the game of an increased "bio-power", an alternative approach would be to converge "deconstructive" readings, who, from psychoanalysis to philosophy through a certain anthropology, are entitled to an approach in terms of "pharmakon", that is to say of ambivalence of the poison and the remedy, between Eros and Thanatos.The search for limits is the contemporary condition of the "uncertain individual", eternal adolescent. Here we find the "new psychic economy", making a sign towards a new clinical figure, that of the "borderline” patient, which knows multiple avatars and resists classifications.A number of essays on "discontent" intermingle individual clinical and cultural speculation, based on the key concept of "desymbolization". The lack of Law and the symbolic Father, however, seems an insufficient explanation, as does the reverse reading that leads to the libertarian headlong pursuit. Our reading of Lacan refuses to be part of this Old / Modern dualism, and focuses on the category of Ego Ideal and "unary trait" which suggests a knot of the symbolic with the imaginary, far from opposing them; it plays a vital role, allowing the symbolic to register. Symbolization is thus a process rather than a state, in which the subject is confronted, in ambivalence, with the question of its limits. He must convert the ideal Ego into the Ego Ideal.This is what myths allow to do, they are used to support, as mediating totems, the work of subjectivation, by engaging subjects in an identificatory and "transfictional" process that produces creative effects. In our era of “disenchantment of the world”, the available myths are only quasi-myths, "evasive" myths, against the background of discontent, and death of God. But popular literature, especially the one which is aimed at adolescents, like some vampire stories, offers "narcissistic romances", where Oedipus is now in the background. It revisits the character of Hamlet.Paradoxically, the figures of the mystics, adepts of limit-experiences and impregnated with ambivalence, close to Lacan by their "negative" theology of kenosis and their "apophatic" word, which cultivates loss, also find a new relevance, as well as the figure of the Apostle Paul, read by Agamben. His christology of the weak, depressed God, subject to lack, resonates like a deconstruction. It opens to a "time of the end", "time that remains", which suspends identities, defuses the powers and makes possible, perhaps, a "promise" and a "faith" in the sense of Derrida, in a ambivalent logic of the sacred where the Ideal is close to the abject.Therefore, should not the cure, by renouncing a too nosographic approach, and too much centered on the symbolic castration, endeavor to find the fruitful and invigorating trace of the unary trait, that is to say, to leave a place to the imaginary? Thus the analysis would play the role of a kind of "Camera Lucida": by letting out the "myths".But it is perhaps at the price of the risk, that of the fall, of the "skandalon", that one can hope that the subject is deprived of the ideal Ego and its traps, to effect another knotting, never foreseeable nor assured in advance, and always in the neighborhood of the "hole": a nomination, a sinthome.
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Julien Cueille. Crise de la symbolisation et Idéal du Moi dans la culture postmoderne : essai de psychanalyse pharmakologique. Psychologie. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MON30064⟩. ⟨tel-02144028⟩

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