Enrichment of functional analysis for the construction sector by the integration of systems engineering and constructibility : application to the multifunctional metro

Abstract : Objectives of the thesis is to enrich Functional Analysis, a design method oriented on the definition of functions, by the integration of two methodological corpuses: Constructability and Systems Engineering in order to adapt it to complex construction products. The enriched method is used and applied on an innovative concept: the multifunctional metro. This new concept consists in the integration of new functions in a metro system: not only transport people but also energy, information, wastes, merchandises, water etc. in order to answer to several city needs with a unique infrastructure. In the introduction, after having describe challenges faced by the construction industry, we highlight that Functional Analysis has been used extensively in other industries to face similar issues. However, its application in the construction industry is limited due to particularities of the construction industry: each project is unique, construction projects are complex and that needs construction projects answer consists in adapting space in order to carry human or related activities. The identification of such particularities have led on one hand, to the consideration of constructability concepts and principles in Functional Analysis to better integrate development constraints of each project in the product development. On the other hand, to the consideration of Systems Engineering, a methodological corpus which objective is to manage complexity of projects. Firstly, Functional Analysis, Constructability and Systems Engineering corpuses are presented and issues are identified in these three methods either to adapt them to complex construction projects for their integration. Constructability notably, is improved with the integration of constraints from Design and Planning phases and a proposition is presented to shift from Constructability to Constructibility. Systems Engineering for its part is adapted by the integration of spatial characteristics of systems. A SysML tool (Systems Modeling Language) has been developed and linked with a BIM modeling tool to improve the capacity to model and verify requirements related to construction systems. The Constructibility matrix, a tool to ease the implementation of constructibility has also been developed.Secondly, Functional Analysis enriched by methodological inputs and tools related to the construction industry is applied. Case studies concern two different phases (planning and design) in two different projects where multifunctionnality concepts have been investigated: the 5th metro line of Lyon where the evaluation of the integration of new functions in the metro line have been studied. And the line 16 of the Greater Paris Project where the integration of a broadband network was the opportunity to study the integration of a new function more in detail (transport information). In conclusion we shall suggest some ways forward by outlining avenues for further researches: how to measure constructibility criteria at different systemic levels is a challenge on which we give some ways to follow. The application and adaptation of Systems Engineering to the construction industry remains to be better investigated and we give some further research indications, particularly on the integration with BIM (Building Information Modeling) methods. We also present how the use of MBSE (Model-Based Systems Engineering) techniques and Data Science could lead to the automation of some design activities which could enrich Functional Analysis methods. Insights on the organization of the profession and contractual issues are proposed and would require more researches to enable implementation of the presented methodology in projects
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Nicolas Ziv. Enrichment of functional analysis for the construction sector by the integration of systems engineering and constructibility : application to the multifunctional metro. Civil Engineering. Université Paris-Est, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1065⟩. ⟨tel-02144013⟩

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